Systematic Review of Economic Evaluations of Healthcare


Added on  2019-09-30

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Systematic ReviewA systematic review of Economic evaluations of Healthcare-associatedinfection prevention interventions.

AbstractResearch ObjectiveThe objective of this systematic review is to assess the quality of the economic evaluations that were done for the infection prevention interventions that were introduced to improve health outcomes and reduce the costs associated with the treatment occurring due to HAIs. The key focus was to understand that whether introducing solutions to prevent the infection helps in the reduction of the infections and also the incurred costs for the hospitals.Research MethodsThe systematic review has been considered for this study. The researcher referred to various peerand non-peer reviewed research papers on economic evaluation in HAIs from the sources such asPubMed, Medline, and Google Scholar. Google Scholar was used to search through authentic internet sources to pick relevant research studies. The PRISMA guidelines have been used to report the paper and the research papers were evaluated using CHEERS statement for its quality of reporting. ResultsThe systematic review led to the identification of 24 research papers based on certain inclusion criteria. The study led to the understanding that the interventions lead to the increase in the savings ratio for the hospitals. Moreover, the increase in the intervention duration also improves the savings ratio. Other than that, implementation of intervention of multiple HAIs lead to highersavings ration than otherwise. Also, only few of the research studies (n=7) have been found to befollowing most of the CHEERS items (~70%) whereas most of the papers followed about 50% of the items.ConclusionsIf the interventions are implemented in the hospitals for preventing HAIs, then it can have positive impact on the cost savings. Also, the research papers should focus on improving the quality of reporting as per CHEERS checklist. IntroductionThe current paper is concerned with the systematic review of economic evaluations of healthcareassociated infection prevention interventions between January 2010 and January 2016. Hospital Acquired Infections or the nosomical infections are one of the harm that can be prevented. However, at present it has become a major challenge to the life of the patients and has become a resultant of reduced health care safety measures (Kohn et al, 1999). The study conducted by Klevens et al (2002) has led to the finding that the hospital acquired infections are considered themajor health challenges. There are enough evidences presented by the researchers that states that

if handled properly, then the HAIs can be handled effectively (Yokoe et al, 2008). The study conducted by CDCP (2012), and Pronovost et al (2006) asserted that more than 50% of the hospital acquired infections can be prevented through appropriate measures. The individuals or the institutions who are willing to save thousands of lives and reduce the invested extra costs, can turn towards implementing measures that can reduce the instances of hospital acquired infections. The solutions that can help resolve the HAIs challenge are available. Also, there is the understanding that if the effort is made towards saving the lives, then it is more likely to save the added cost that is invested on curing the infections. Despite these two, the progresses towards fighting the HAI challenges are very slow. It is the researcher’s understanding that if the costs associated with HAIs can be evaluated properly, then the payers can be motivated to take actions. Moreover, the policy makers can be motivated to make proper investment in this aspect to reduce HAIs if they witness major cost savings. The focus is to understand that whether the introduction of infection prevention solutions help in reducing infections along with saving the money for the hospitals. If the finding of this question is assertive, then it can be an appreciable news for the policymakers and all the other direct and indirect stakeholders engaged in the healthcare activities. RationaleHAIs contribute to morbidity and mortality in a significant manner. It also has huge impact on the healthcare system and the patients in terms of costs associated with it. The study has found that the healthcare contributes heavily to the expenses in the healthcare (Jarvis, 1996). Statistically, 4.1 million patients develop HAI in Western Europe. This leads to the addition of 16 million hospital days and around 37,000 attributable deaths. These costs more than € 5.48 billion. In the US, the cost HAIs for the year was $9.8 billion. The governments in various countries are make continued effort to ensure that the expenses on the healthcare aspects are reduced (Pittet et al, 1994). This is the reason they are willing to implement protocols for the reduction of HAIs that can save costs. The institutions are looking forward to the technologies that are less costly and help in reducing the burden that are caused due to the HAIs. Researchers from various countries are studying this aspect in order to understand the necessary measures that can be taken to manage the regularly increasing costs (Plowman et al, 2001). It is important that this burden should be understood. Also, it is necessary to understand the incremental costs that occurs due to the HAIs which is entirely different from the costs incurred for the diagnosis of the patients at the time of their admission. It has been asserted by researchers that the costs associated with the HAIs varies among different hospitals. Also, it varies among different countries. ObjectivesThe objective of this systematic review is to assess the quality of the economic evaluations that were done for the infection prevention interventions that were introduced to improve health

outcomes and reduce the costs associated with the treatment occurring due to HAIs. The key focus would be to understand that whether introducing the solutions to prevent the infection helps in the reduction of the infections and also the incurred costs for the hospitals.MethodsThe current paper has considered systematic review as the method of study. Various peer reviewed and non-peer reviewed research papers on economic evaluations in HAIs has been considered. Through the systematic literature review, various research studies are picked based on specific criteria and then these papers are studied to reach specific goals. The current section is concerned with detailing the methods that are applied to conduct the entire research. The entirereport is in accordance with PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis) guidelines (Moher et al, 2009). Few additional analysis undertaken to conduct this research have also been discussed in the last sub-section of this section.Protocol and RegistrationA protocol in the case of systematic review is concerned with the describing the rationale, assumptions, and method plan for the review. It is generally prepared prior to beginning the review process. In this sub-section, a brief research rationale has been provided along with the assumptions. As per the method plan is concerned, the other sub-sections of this Method section will amply cover the various associated aspects. Systematic Review RationalesThe studies in the field of Hospital Acquired Infections have been many. The researchers have tried to cover various infections such as surgical site infections, blood stream infections, and others. Few of them have also covered the costs that are being incurred by the hospitals to contain this issue. After going through various studies, the researcher of this current paper reached the conclusion that there is the need to bring together the studies from past few years that are associated with the economic evaluations of HAIs. The contribution of HAIs to the cost is substantial, either it is to the hospital or to the whole country Also, this issue can be observed in many countries, either it is a developed nations like USA or underdeveloped economies in other parts of the world (Jarvis, 1996). The researchers from various parts of the world have contributed to this field of study. However, the studies are more distracted and bringing them together would be of great help for future studies in this field. This is the reason the researcher ofthis paper has took on the effort to conduct the systematic review of the research papers of past few years that are related to the selected research topic.Hypothesis

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