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Table of ContentsProperties.........................................................................................................................................2Trends..............................................................................................................................................3Nature of the Compounds............................................................................................................3Atomic Radius.............................................................................................................................3Electronegativity..........................................................................................................................3Ionization energy.........................................................................................................................4Melting and boiling points...........................................................................................................4Density.........................................................................................................................................5Electropositive or Metallic Character..........................................................................................5Reactivity.....................................................................................................................................5
PropertiesThe selected elements are Lithium, Sodium and Potassium. The three selected elements are ionicin nature and seen to have low melting point, low densities and react violently with water. Due tothis, these metals are generally stored in mineral oil. These are extremely soft in nature and havesilvery appearance. These are seen to have the largest atomic radii and have low electronegativities and low ionization energies. This can be understood by examining the electronicconfiguration of these elements.The alkali metals have the largest atomic radii in their respective period as they have one, looselybound electron in their ultimate shell. This valence electron can easily be lost and a univalent
cation can be formed, making these elements highly reactive in nature. Due to this, they havelow effective charge owning to low ionization energies.TrendsNature of the CompoundsThe alkali metals ionic in nature as they have the tendency to form cation owning to lowionization energy and by losing their valence electron easily. Therefore, an ionic bond is formedwith the p block non-metal.Atomic RadiusDown the group, the atomic radius is seen to increase due to addition of the new energy shells ofthe electron. Therefore, the atomic size is seen to increase on going down the group.Physical propertyLiNaKAtomic radius152186231ElectronegativityThe electronegativity decreases down the group due to high amount of screening and shieldingby the innermost electrons of the elements.Physical propertyLiNaKElectronegativity1.00.90.8
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