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Analyse theories, principles, models of learning (Doc)

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Table of ContentsINTRODUCTION...........................................................................................................................2TASK 1............................................................................................................................................2A. Analysis theories, principles, models of learning and models of learning preferences.........2B. Explaining ways in which theories, principles and models of learning can be applied toteaching and assessment..............................................................................................................7C. Analysing individual learning preferences that enables inclusive teaching, learning andassessment...................................................................................................................................8TASK 2..........................................................................................................................................10A. Analysis of theories, principles and models of communication...........................................10B. Explaining ways in which theories, principles and models of communication can beapplied to teaching, learning and assessment............................................................................12TASK 3..........................................................................................................................................13A. Analysing theories, principles and models of assessment....................................................13B. Explaining ways in which theories, models and principles of assessment can be applied tolearning......................................................................................................................................15C. Choosing assessment method from teaching practice portfolio...........................................17D. Evaluating effectiveness in enabling learning and progression for different learners.........18TASK 4..........................................................................................................................................18A. Analysing theories and models of curriculum development................................................18B. Explaining ways in which theories and models of curriculum development can be appliedin own area of specialism..........................................................................................................22TASK 5..........................................................................................................................................23A. Analysing theories and models of reflection and evaluation...............................................23B. Application of theories and models of reflection and evaluation in reflective account.......30CONCLUSION..............................................................................................................................32REFERENCES..............................................................................................................................34
INTRODUCTIONVarious theories, models and principles of learning helps in learning andimproving knowledge. Different models and principles of learning preferencesguides ways of learning preferences (Amanchukwu, Stanley and Ololube, 2015).Different ways of learning or style helps different people to acquire knowledgeand skills. Styles of learning are termed as preferences. This report includesvarious theories and models which are used in education and training. Applicationof these principles and models in education and training is shown in the report.The report explains how learner’s preferences needs to be taken into accountaccording to inclusive learning and teaching. Furthermore, this study will alsoexamine the models and principles of communication which can be applied toteaching, learning and assessment. In addition to this the report will discussassessments that helps in improving the learning through relevant examplesalong with the relationship among each assessment and learning.TASK 1A. Analysis theories, principles, models of learning and models of learningpreferences.Learning is the process that aims at acquiring new skills and knowledge ordeveloping current skills and knowledge (Barnlund, 2017). Learners uses thesemodels and theories to improve and modify existing behaviours, knowledge,skills, preferences and values. The process and procedure involved in learning isstudied in different field of educations. Following are explained some theories,models and principles of learning:Procedural vs Declarative knowledge:2
Person with declarative knowledge or procedural knowledge effectivelybecomes skilled in problem solving. Declarative knowledge refers that factualinformation or data which is stored in memory that is also known to be static innature. Declarative knowledge is very conscious and often verbalized. Whereas,procedural knowledge teaches person to ways for doing something. In this type ofknowledge person may not be able to explain how to do it. For example, riding abicycle. The procedural knowledge implicit learning, which learner is not aware of.Skills development:It is one of the five major categories of learning, verbalinformation, cognitive strategies, motor skills and attitudes. Various external andinternal conditions are essential for each and every type of learning. For example,in order to learn cognitive strategies there must be a probability to practicedevelopment of new solutions to issues or problems. It is essential to learnattitudes and along with this it is also necessary for the learner to get exposed toa persuasive argument or credible role model. Skill development is very importantpart of learning which is improved through assessment. Each and every skill needsto be improved and developed with the help of different methods in order toachieve a overall growth.BehaviouristThis theory named behaviourism believes that knowledge in people isexisted independently and outside them. The learning process under this theory isbased on observable changes in behaviour. This is the theory whose learning isbased on idea that all behaviours are acquired through process of conditioning.Thus, this occurs through interaction with that of environment. The learningprocess begins when learner reacts to stimulus that is present in an environment.This model has been further criticised for being too dimensional in its3
understanding in terms of behaviour. This theory is used by someone when theyhave to reward or punish the particular individual. The main consequence of thistheory is that it lacks in preparing the learner in terms of solving problems orthinking in creative manner. They generally do what are being told to do ratherthan taking initiative in improving things.CognitivistThis theory is basically based on the thought process behind behaviour. It isalso based on some kind of idea that human process respond to the process ofthe information that they receive rather than responding to stimuli ofenvironment. There is no requirement of an outward exhibition in terms oflearning, but has its focus mainly on the internal process and also connectionsthat may take place while the process of learning takes place.HumanistThis theory basically states that individual must have ability in order tosearch for meanings in order to develop themselves. In other words, it alsobelieves that learning is viewed as personal act that leads in fulfilling one'spotential. Further, if person has any kind of issue than this theory may faceproblems in the middle of their learning process. In addition to this, this theoryhas been criticised for being extremely subjective and this leads towardslimitation of validity of their claims as they are lacking in providing measurableevidence.Models of learning preferencesThere are number of individuals that has ability of learning in differentways. Further, they also have style that helps them in acquiring new skills and4
knowledge so that they can remember things easily. Thus, some of the learningstyles or preferences has been discussed as per below context-VARK learning styleVARK style leads in providing with simple ways that helps in explaining andunderstanding styles related to learning. It has been stated that different personhas different style in terms of learning things (Dainton and Zelley, 2017). Allmethods are used by learners in order to receive correct information. Thus,according to this model, there are many people that possess dominant style interms of learning. In addition to this, it has also been stated through this modelthat an individual may prefer one style of learning for one task and may use otherall with a combination to perform any other task. Thus, the acronym of VARK isVisual, Auditory, reading and Kinaesthetic learning.Visual- this style involves that person or an individual basically learnswither by seeing or observing things. These things include diagrams,demonstrations, displays, handouts films etc. they most effectivelyrelate to the written information and has ability of remembering facesrather than names.Auditory- This style involves transferring information from one person toanother with help of listening. They basically listen to the words that hasbeen spoken by them or either sounds and noises. This type of personremember names rather than faces. They are the one who may be goodin writers, graphic design, etc.Reading- they are the one who are good at reading and learning thingswith help of reading and writing. They have the ability of reading things.5
Kinaesthetic- this type of learning style involves physical experience thatincludes touching, feeling, holding or practical hand on experiences.They are those individuals who enjoy playing games and gets physicallyinvolved in various things. In addition to this, they remember what wasdone rather than seeing or talking about that.KOLB learning styleoKolb learning style is opposite from Vark learning style. This isbecause the KOLB style or preference basically focus on perceptionand processing (Fogel, 2017). According to this style, it has beenstated that individual who are learning perceive and process theinformation in time from concrete experience, reflective observation,active experimentation and abstract conceptualisation. According tothe author, learning is termed as the process where knowledge iscreated through transformation of experience. The four styles hasbeen discussed as per below context-Concrete experience- this means to get involved in a new and upcomingexperience.Reflective observation- This means to watch others or develop any kind ofobservation about one's own experience.Abstract conceptualisation- This means to create theories so that they caneasily exp[lain the things that has been observed by them.Active experimentation- This states that to using various theories so thatproblems can be solved easily and decisions are also made that may leadthem towards success.6
B. Explaining ways in which theories, principles and models of learning can beapplied to teaching and assessmentThey would have used behaviourism theory as they are playing role of roleplay interviews (Bates, 2019). In which same similar questions are asked toeveryone so that they can easily build answer that will lead them in facing themconfidently and also in natural way to all the questions that will be asked to them.Thus, there are number of ways that are discussed in which the models andtheories of learning are applied.Thus, taking behaviourist model into consideration, than it can be appliedby incorporating reward system into course content. They must avoidpunishments as they lack in encouraging motivation to those individualwho specially has poor self-esteem and regards. This reward system mustbe in such way that will help in fulfilling basic needs of learners. They alsolearn and choose not to change their behaviour.Humanism theory can be applied by someone in order to ensure thatholistic approach is incorporated by teaching to the process of learning.Thus, everyone that are present basically strives in order to work towardshelping learners so that they can achieve self-actualisation.Cognitivism theory of learning can be applied in terms of recognition thatknowledge related to change behaviour is required to be internalised.Therefore, further plans can be developed in order to assist the process oflearning and also ensure that learner gets picture that new knowledge thatis internalised in interpreted correctly or not.7
C. Analysing individual learning preferences that enables inclusive teaching,learning and assessment.Individual learning preference will influence importantly to the model thatwill be further applied towards the methods that is related to teaching. Further,the key features in inclusive teaching and learning includes assessing needs of anindividual, their learning preferences and objectives that they have targeted(Goldie, 2016).Both learning preferences shows four learning styles. Therefore, byidentifying this styles, it has been ensured by the tutor that the lesson plan musthave become holistic by using various range of resources that includes flip-charts,handouts and presentations and also by giving continuous praise to learners. Thiswill encourage them in learning things easily and smoothly.For example, if visual words is used by person to covey with visual personthan it will be easy for that individual to understand what tutor wants to say andthere is no requirement of transferring it from any other kind of system. If anydifferent style is used that it may create barrier to communication, because therearises huge requirement of translating the things that other person wants toconvey into their respective representational system in order to process it. Duringthe process of translation of information, some kind of data may also can get lost.Thus, it has also been analysed that requirement of an individual learner isso varied that it becomes essential or important in order to incorporate variousdifferent styles that us related to teaching methods so that they can easily andfully enable fully inclusive practice in terms of teaching. This will further help allindividual in order to maximise their potential to learn new skills and behaviours.8
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