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IntroductionThe perception of pain varies from individual to individual and so doesthe response provided to it. In this respect, the influence of pain and itsperception on individuals and society have been compared. The approach to painmanagement is often guided by cultural and spiritual attributes of a person. Thesociety is often subjected to a large number of cultural paradoxes. Some of thesemyths and false beliefs are influenced by the presence of limited knowledgeabout health practices.Moreover, the approach to palliative care and pain management is oftendependent on a number of parameters such as the role of families and differentcommunication approaches adopted. In this context, communication oftenbecomes an indispensable part of the pain management and palliative careprogramme. However, in some of the cases, the challenged is being faced due tothe patients belonging to culturally and linguistically diverse groups. The currentassignment focuses on the behavioural response to pain and the challenges faceddue to cultural attributes.In the current study the concept of pain management had been describedwith respect to the Chinese and aboriginal culture. In this respect, two differentwomen from two different cultural backgrounds have undergoing treatment foradvanced stages of cancer. The chapter highlights the responses of the individualpatients to the perceptions of pain and the cultural paradoxes affecting theirmental perceptions.
Body:Pain is a dynamic, unpleasant sensory experience with any physical, social, andpsychological implications. Pain transcends all cultural boundaries, with nopreference as to who will be afflicted. While pain is a universal humanexperience, thebehavioural response to pain is controlled by a wide variety offactors such as the health, cultural belief, psychological makeup and differentsocial factors (Tung & Li, 2015). Each social and cultural group has its ownunique language of distress and pain, its own complex expression by whichunpleasant patients make other people aware of their pain.In the context of Mrs Jessie being affected by old world norms believed that herpresent condition could be relieved alone by the traditional medication. She hadlittle or no belief in the modern day biomedical approach to pain managementand care.Mrs, Jessie belonging from an aboriginal cultural group might beexposed to a number of cultural paradoxes. Some of these paradoxes mightdevelop into cultural frictions, which affects the quality of the care services. Foraboriginal people the chatting about pain may lead the conversation into thepolitical areas of the land land rights and stolen generation. According toFenwick & Stevens, (2006) aboriginal people suppress pain behaviours anddemonstrate reluctance to discuss their pain experience with others. It meansaboriginal patients are reluctant to report pain to health care provider: mainreasons were the lack of established trust relationships with health careprofessionals and a need to be brave. The pain are fatiguing, sometimesaboriginal people exhibit a unique and subtle pain behaviour and language, aslight upward nod of the head with downcast eyes when asked if in pain;
“painting sister”; a head turn away with eyes averted; the whispered response,and, the act of feigning sleep. Other facial expression that aboriginal patientsdemonstrate when they are in pain is head shaking, crying and clucking of thetongue. Observation of aboriginal people reveals that pain expressed throughmobility and body positioning (Strong, Nielsen, & Williams, 2015). Whenaboriginal people in pain, they often lie completely still or roll onto their side,diverting their look from other people in the room.Please use the word compare and contrast word in this red codedparagraph to provide difference and similarity between Chinese andaboriginal culture.In the context of Mrs Wu being suffering from terminal stage of stomach cancerwishes to continue with her traditional and herbal medicine regimen. Moreover,she believes that the same might have occurred due to the imbalance of yin yangin the body. In Chinese culture, Yin represents negative energy and yangrepresents positive energy. They believe that it has to be in balance to createhealthy and harmonious life. Therefore, they prefer to take traditional medicineinstead of using other medical treatment. Chinese immigrants have been foundto have strong connection between pain and emotional behaviours. According toChinese culture, the demonstration of negative affect, even in response to pain,could be considered as disruptive to social harmony (Dhingra, Lo, Tsoi, & Chang,2015).However as compared byBrown & Ryan(2015), the Australianaboriginal people feel astrong spiritual connectwhich helps them inovercoming from physically and mentally depressing situations.
Contrastingly, Chinese people value stoicism and Confucianism and Buddhismoften influence them. These spiritual beliefs have significant impact on theirunderstanding of pain. Stoicism refers to tolerating pain or pleasure withoutshowing emotion, and it considered be a positive lifestyle in Chinese culture(Tung & LI, 2015).Comparing with aboriginal culture, Chinese people also feelthat admitting and revealing to pain is a sign of weakness.Therefore, Chinesepeople often avoid the verbal and non-verbal expression of their pain. However,it is possible to see their pain in their facial expression, not wanting to eat,moved or being touch etc. According to Buddhism, pain is the consequence ofsinful action in the past. People should accept their own karma by not receivingmedical treatment. By this, many Chinese immigrants refuse to take painmedication and prefer to use traditional medicine.Family is an important part of person’s life and can provide additional love,support and act as caring and strength factors (Khosravan, Mazolm, Jamali&Reza, 2014). The families in aboriginal culture play a crucial role in the end of lifepalliative care by providing sufficient mental, spiritual and emotional support tothe patients.Family involvement in caring of aboriginal patient is considered as providinglovingness and reducing the fear linked with serious illness and death. Aboriginalpeople have great value for the family and it is one of the major health decision-making organs in an aboriginal people life (McGrath, 2006).Because Jessie issuffering from acute pain in her left breast, it is expected that her daughter willplay an important role in the decision making process in regards to Jessie health.