PSYCH 101 - General Psychology Assignment

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The Four Perspectives of Psychological SciencePsychology 101 – General Psychology – Section – OL1Summer I 2017Professor N. JenkinsMay 27, 2017
Psychological Science helps in understanding how someone thinks, feels and behaves. Thereare various perspectives that can be considered to understand why someone does what theydo. The current paper is concerned with understanding the various perspectives ofpsychological science. In general, there are many psychological perspectives. However, thispaper will look into the four perspectives, namely, psychodynamic approach, behaviouralapproach, cognitive approach, and humanistic approach.Psychodynamic ApproachSigmund Freud brought this perspective in picture. As per Sigmund Freud stated that mostthe impulses in the human being is the resultant of sex. This approach is also called thepsychoanalytical approach. As per this approach the experiences in childhood shapes what anindividual will become or the way he will behave in the later stage of the age. Thepsychologists practicing psychodynamic are of the belief that the behaviour of an individualis the resultant of the unconscious forces within the mind and body about which theindividual has no awareness (Adelson & Doehrman, 1980).In this approach, it is believed that all the actions or behaviour hides some form of latentmotivation. The method of study adopted by psychologists of this view involves looking forthe hidden meanings in whatever behaviour the person engages in or does. The researcherscollect large quantity of qualitative data if they are to conduct particular behavioural studyand mostly rely on case based approach.There are some criticisms associated with this approach. In this approach, the individualsengage in collection of qualitative data and then its interpretation. Here, it has beenconsidered that there is greater chance of involvement of researcher bias. There is thepossibility that the researchers might end up supporting the data and evidence that identifiesmost with their previous knowledge and perception (Coren, 1997). In this method, it is
possible that two different researchers might end up with different interpretations using thesame situation and qualitative data. Therefore, there is lack of objectivity to a certain amount.Behavioural ApproachThe psychologists practicing behavioural approach are of the view that the actions taken bythe individual is the result of what is happening outside the person, that is, in the surrounding.The stimuli from the environment forces individuals to act or behave in a certain way.Therefore, the psychologists relying on this view consider that the individuals can be trainedto behave in a particular way by subjecting them to appropriate stimuli from outside.The proponents of this approach such as B. F. Skinner stated that there are no such things asfree will (Skinner, 2014). Through this approach it is believed that the individual can be madeto learn something by subjected to reinforcements and punishment. Also, this approach statesthat the things that can be seen and observed are only real.There are two types of learning in the behavioural approach. They are:Classical ConditioningClassical conditioning is the form of learning process that takes place whenever the stimuliare paired together with repetition. This is also called automatic type of learning. This isbecause in this the learning takes place by invoking responses by stimulus one after another.Operant ConditioningThe operant conditioning refers to changing the behaviour of the individual by using thereinforcement. The reinforcement is provided after the desired response is gathered from thesubject.
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