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The social origins of the Cuban enclave economy of Miami - PDF

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SOCIAL CAPITAL IN DENSELY POPULATED AREASSocial capital can be defined as the bonds, links or common values that bringunderstanding and enable a group of people in society o coexist in harmony. According toHaffan 1916, social capital is the assets such as sympathy, and social interaction amongindividuals that comprise a social group. Coleman (1988) believes that social capital is whatmakes people in society to act and have social interactions.Different individuals came up with different theories so as to define social capital. Forinstance, social capital is not tied to one specific individual but comprises of people’sinteractions in society (Lour1977, Bourdieu 1985, Coleman 1988). They however go ahead andstate that social capital was discovered individually; therefore it is not something acquirednaturally but built through investment individuals in the society so as to promote a commongood. Coleman’s work on social capital provided an insight on the American sociology andimportance of human capital, how it is acquired and generated.Putman also came up with theories to define social capital. He refers to it as networksamong individuals that promote trustworthiness among themselves. Trust enables differentpeople to come together and work through the same objectives that they share. According to him,United States is experiencing a decline in social capital due to the withdrawal of citizens fromthe civil society. This has provided an avenue for more research on the topic of social capital andthe civil society.There are three types of existing networks in social capital namely bonding, bridging andlinking. Bonding is refers to the support one may receive from another because they belong tothe same social unit such as family or ties such as same ethnic group. Bridging is cohesionamong individuals who are brought together by interests and views. Linking is interactionsamong individuals due to status, lifestyle or belonging to a social class.
SOCIAL CAPITAL IN DENSELY POPULATED AREASSocial capital has several positive effects. For instance it promotes personal happiness inindividuals. Social capital is what promotes interactions among members of a society. One istherefore able to have different conversations with different individual in the society. This bringsa sense of satisfaction and a feeling of belonging to a particular group because of the sharenorms. Members are even more ready to participate in social functions such as charity funddrives in the community.Moreover it promotes trust among individual. People of different diversity are able tocome together through the common belief in shared objectives. Through trust differentindividuals are able to cooperate together to pursue a common interest. Trust amongentrepreneurs in society is also important as one can acquire funds easily in the community.Furthermore, it promotes coordination among individuals (Ann and Ostrom 2008) .Socialcapital enables members to have different expectations from social interactions. Members areable to have obligations in their interactions. Basic interactions enable members to have aspecific code of conduct that restrains them against some social acts. Social capital thuspromotes control in social interactions. Members in a given society are able to have the samerules and norms which they adhere to. This promotes a system of control in the society.In addition to that, social capital is instrumental in social stratification. Connections arereally vital in accessing some opportunities such as job vacancies. In Granovetter (1974) idea of“strength of weak ties” he points out that indirect force beyond the ties in a family are importantin providing referrals for job opportunities.Despite these positive impacts, there are social disadvantages of social capital. Foremost,it promotes the emergence of ethnic niches. Through this, members of a certain community areentitled to job opportunities and denying those that do not belong in that particular society. Jobsare thus given to members of a given kin and friends.Through social capital, members of a given society identify themselves with certaincharacters which are sometimes not healthy. Members have to conform to certain behaviorswhich have no advantage. The purpose of this is always
SOCIAL CAPITAL IN DENSELY POPULATED AREASThe town of Baltimore is a residential area which is an urban ghetto. The majorpopulation comprises mainly of Asian immigrants and the Blacks. In this society, members forma basis of survival through mutual assistance. Members are able to rise up and coexist togetherdespite their differences. For instance, members identify with each other and help each otheracquire different favors such as loans.Members have conformed to a certain norm that limits the freedom of individuals. Theyfeel entitled to the ghetto kind of lifestyle and would easily criticize anyone who tries to distantthemselves in the future.Generally, social capital promotes the development and social wellbeing of individuals.
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