The Traditional Way of Student Administration

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THE STUDENT ADMINSTRATION MANAGER APPLICATION ANDDESIGNSECTION11.0 INTRODUCTIONOwing to the advent of increase in technology, so many areas of our lives and environment should feelthe impact of what technology and engineering has to offer, in order to ease our lives and make thingssimple (www.ielts-mentor.com/.../200-ielts-writing-task-2-sample. April, 2016).Student administration practices has also always been manual, all thanks the emergence of technology.The traditional way of student administration was paper based, registers are used to mark attendance,paper forms are used to register new students, teachers and in non-academic staff. The result of all thismethod is more papers, registers to be kept and more storage space to be bought or mapped out. Employing modern technology (computerization) make things a lot easier. There is reduction in howpapers are used and also reduction in to demand in educational sector. The Idea of this project is toimplement one of the modern techniques by which the traditional ways can be replaced, hence it iscalled student administration manager. It is termed manager because the following are needed for fullfunctionality of the system, namely;a. Administrator b. Teachersc. StudentsThese three categories of people are needed for the student administration manager to work.1.1ADMINISTRATORJust like we have in the traditional way of student management, administrator are the once that handlesboth the teachers' files and the students' files. The files are kept in different cabinet. The same techniqueis applied here just that in a much easier and less physical way. This modern method makes it possibleto search through databases where both the students' and the teachers' records are stored(https://textbookequity.org/.../Courtney_DatabaseSystemsforManagement.pdf, April 2016).
1.2TEACHERSWell, compared to the modern technique the traditional way of student management limits teachers' tostudents' records as they have to go through some protocols to get the data or information they need.The modern method makes it convenient for teachers' to manage student’s record from the dashboard.Teachers can also sort the database for student’s record easily and quickly.1.3STUDENTSSince students are the ones been managed with this modern technique they are provided with their owndashboard where they mark attendance for classes, seminars, group assessment. In some studentadministration systems, exam grades, sms alert, notification board, private messages, payment,dormitory etc. are integrated to optimize the system.
SECTION 22.1 RICH INTERNET APPLICATIONSThe modern technology make use of RIA ( Rich Internet Applications) frameworks to get the Real-time automation easier and faster (https://www.infosys.com/.../application.../rich-internet-applications.p,April 2016). Rich Internet applications (RIA) are web applications that have the features and functionality oftraditional desktop applications. RIAs typically transfer the processing necessary for the user interfaceto the web client but keep the bulk of the data (e.g. application state, domain-specific information, etc.)on the application server(www.planetlinks.com/tec236/notes-terms/5-1.../internet-application.doc, April2016). Rich Internet Applications combine the best user interface functionality of desktop softwareapplications with the broad reach and low-cost deployment of web applications and the best ofinteractive, multimedia communication. The end result is an application which provides a moreintuitive, responsive, and effective user experience (https://books.google.com/books, April 2016). Real-time pushing is an architecture in which a web server sends data to a client program (normally a webbrowser) asynchronously without any need for the client to explicitly request it. It allows creation ofevent-driven web applications, enabling real-time interaction otherwise impossible in a browser. Thisis also known as the term Comet (https://books.google.com/books, April 2016). Real-time applicationsuse long-lived HTTP connections between the client and server, which the server can respond to lazily,pushing new data to the client as it becomes available. Many technologies have emerged to fill up theshortcomings of HTML-based web applications and provide richer interfaces for users. Some of theexamples of these are Adobe Flash and client technologies both for Java and Microsoft platforms(www.websitepulse.com/kb/rich_internet_applications_(ria).html April 2016). Combined, theapplications developed by using these technologies are called as Rich Internet Applications (RIA).AJAX is commonly also regarded as a technique for implementing RIAs.
Figure1 Rich Internet Applications Structure. Source: (Shahzeb M., 2009 )The RIA architecture has been around for quite a while now. It was first introduced in a paper back in2002 by macromedia (Shahzeb Muhammad, 2009), though unofficially the term have been around for alonger period with the names of ;1.Remote Scripting , by Microsoft, 19982.X Internet, by Forrester Research in October 2000(https://gupea.ub.gu.se/bitstream/2077/20555/1/gupea_2077_20555_1.pdf, April 2016)2.1 Difficulties, limitations and benefits of web application development using RIA in general2.1.1 Difficulties using RIATraditional web application development with standard HTML is often performed using simplisticsoftware architectures, designed using a very limited set of development options which, however, arerelatively easy to manage, design and test (Shahzeb Muhammad, 2009). With the introduction of RIA, development has become more advanced, while at the same timegrowing in complexity. The companies developing web applications using RIA-oriented frameworksand technologies face more problems due to the increased complexity in design, testing, measurementsand support (Vipul G. 2008). The companies using RIA frameworks and technologies for application development are, in addition tothe development problems, also faced with several service level management challenges as well, manyof which have not yet been solved at present time. The service level management is of no issue to the developers, and is rarely considered as a problem by
the users of those applications, but they are still important in terms of successful delivery of suchapplications. Some of the different aspects of the RIA that complicate management processes [9] areexplained below: Vipul G. (2008), Traditional web applications can be seen as a number of different web pages and eachof them need to be downloaded separately by an http request. This model is called as the Web pageparadigm. In the case of RIAs, the web page paradigm is totally invalidated; instead RIA introduces a new way ofasynchronous server communication, which often support and enable a more responsive user interface(Shahzeb Muhammad, 2009). In RIAs, the time taken to download a page may not be of that muchimportance to the users; this is because the client engine may be in a mode of constant download tofetch the contents for further use (Bhojaraj Kabbin et al, 2015). To advance the field of RIA-oriented development, and solve some of the service level managementproblems, a standard tool to measure the response time of RIAs could, and indeed should, bedeveloped. Currently, due to the absence of such tools, most of the time the developers must craft theirapplication code to produce the measurement data needed for service level management (www.ijera.com/papers/Vol5_issue5/Part%20-%203/B505030709.pdf, April 2016). Measuring response times between client and server in a traditional web application can easily be doneby placing a computer, somewhere between the two on the network, with the expressed mission toobserve the flow of traffic produced by the network on the TCP and HTTP levels. Because of the factthat these protocols are predictable and synchronous, any kind of a packet sniffer can read these andinterpret them on the packet level (Shahzeb Muhammad, 2009). This would however increase theresponse time experienced by the user by tracking the messages from HTTP and measuring latency ofunderlying packets of the TCP and acknowledgments. The interesting fact about RIA architectures isthat these reduce the power of the packet sniffing approach, because the client engine works in aslightly different way by breaking up the communication between the user and the server into to twodifferent cycles operating in different ways, a foreground (user-to-engine) cycle, and a background(engine-to-server) cycle. Both of these cycles are very important, because neither of them stands alone;it is the relationship between them which define the behaviors of the application(Shahzeb Muhammad,2009). This relationship, however, is completely dependent on the design of the application, which cannot beinferred by a measurement tool, especially one that can observe only one of the two cycles. Thereforethe most complete RIA measurements can currently only be obtained using tools which reside on the
client and observe both cycles (Bhojaraj Kabbin et al, 2015). 2.1.2Limitations of Web Application Development using RIA All technologies have limitations, RIAs are no exception, but it is always up to the design anddevelopment team to keep the shortcomings of the used technology in mind, and in check, beforedesigning an application, so that no hurdles are faced during the actual implementation (Melia S., et al.,2008).One of the limitations of RIA web based desktop applications is that they run in a sandbox, a lockeddown environment which restrict access to the resources of the system. In the case of Ideal Systems,they deploy a desktop web application. Any assumptions made about the resources of the system in usecould be incorrect, in which case the RIA could fail to operate, which would restrict the user from usingthe application. Javascript have always been a trouble with many web technologies, and it is one of thelanguages which are required for RIAs as well. Javascript errors can make the development of RIAsvery complex since they are hard to catch and sometimes even the Javascript debuggers cannot catchthe errors. The usage of Javascript for agent desktop applications would prove an even greater hasslesince there is a lot of event handling in such applications, which could easily be broken and difficult tofix. An example of a problem which could occur on the client is if the user has disabled active scriptingin their browser, whereupon the RIA may not function properly, if at all (Vipul G. 2008). Another limitation which could result in consequential loss of performance would be the usage ofclient-side scripts written in languages which are interpreted, such as Javascript (www.ijera.com/papers/Vol5_issue5/Part%20-%203/B505030709.pdf, April 2016). . This is not an issue with compiled clientlanguages such as Java , where performance is comparable to that of traditional compiled languages, orwith Flash , Curl, or Silverlight , in which the compiled code is run by a Flash, Curl or Silverlightplugins.Many manufacturers of the web browsers have already made a release or are working towards releasinga solution for Javascript engines which would solve the issue of loss of performance, for exampleTraceMonkey, the Javascript engine used in Mozilla Firefox, is already using "Trace Trees" in version3.1 of the browser (Vipul G. 2008). But with this, another limitation arise, which is the restriction of usage of browser with the application.The application shall be used only with the browser which supports some typical functionality, whichcould become a business limitation as well((www.ijera.com/papers/Vol5_issue5/Part%20-%203/B505030709.pdf, April 2016). ).

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