Literature review of Cyber Bullying : Essay

Added on - 21 Jul 2020

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Nafeesa IqbalContemporary issue- Part 2IQB13073649This essay will highlight literature review of Cyber bullying within a contemporary context. It alsooutline impact of it on Youth and Community. The essay will then further analyze the key themes ofCyber bullying such as, effects of Cyber bullying on children, psychological factors, Cyber BullyingEducation and E-Literacy/Safety. Knowledge of these issues will help in reducing the cases of cyberbullying and will make children aware about the hazards of cyber bullying. They will get to knowhow they can deal with such situation and what preventive measures they can take (Kowalski and et.al., 2012). Finally, throughout the essay appropriate policies, research and theory will be discussed.21stCentury is an era of Internet and has brought revolution in the world. There is an approx. 3 billioninternet users in the world or it could be said that almost half of the people are engaged in this. It hasmade life easier because it has lots of benefits attached to it. As every coinhas two sides, same in thecase of Internet For almost everything from personal work to the corporate work people are dependedon internet and this has become the best way to communicate with other people. With advantagessuch as online shopping, accessing material for studying and communication it has also brought somedisadvantages also,one of them is Cyber bullying(Kowalski and et al., 2012). Internet has broughtrevolution in world however it does not go without its advantages and disadvantages which shall befurther evaluated in the assignment.Cyber Bullying is when young children are threatened, harassed, targeted by another child andhumiliated through the use of electronic technology such a computers, mobiles andtablets. This alloccurs when children have open access internet without supervision from elders, which allow them toaccess social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and Snapchat, (Stopbullying.gov, 2017)However, once adults become involved, it is plain and simple Cyber-harassment or cyberstalking.Adult Cyber-harassment is never called Cyberbullying (Hinduja and Patchin, 2014).Graham (2017) states how children have open access online without correct adult supervision, whichcontinues to lead to more cases in regards to cyber bullying and is leading to mental health issues suchas depression and anxiety. In2013 statistics have shown that children have easy access to technologywhichexposes them to higher risk of using technology in a manner that has a negativeimpact onthem (KidsMatter, 2017). Cyber bullying has been one of the top five concerns every year since 1989.Children that are victims of cyber bullying have been provided with counseling sessions about onlinebullying last year -2016. However, it has shown 88 per cent increase in counseling about onlinebullying over the past five years.Waal (2017) states that how cyber bullying is becoming a bigger problem than ever through socialnetworking site. It is widely affecting the youth and communities. Bullying UK (2016) found that43.5% of respondents aged eleven and sixteen have been bullied via social networks. 51% felt that1
Nafeesa IqbalContemporary issue- Part 2IQB13073649blocking the bully from further contact or communication was a vital tool. Majority of the populationconsume internet content for school work, social use and for entertainment, however some people useit to release their anger and frustration which is known as cyber aggression. This defines cyberbullying as an intentional act, that is carried out electronically (Kowalski and et al, 2012).However, it is important to look and identify an individual when classifying a bystander as a bully,Erikson was one of the first psychologists to examine the views of identity, he defined identity as theattitude of an individual towards different situation and conditions which a person faces in hs or herdaily life. Whatever a person faces, shapes his or her attitude towards society (Mishna and et. al.,2012). A person facing any harassment will automatically develop the feeling of revenge, which is adangerous sign for a society. Bystander is a person who had already faced cyberbullying or any otherharassment. Many bystanders are victims of bullying which in many cases is unseen as who do notintervene or report bullying often suffer. This increase pressure for them to participate in the bullyingas in many cases they do not know what to do Eyesonbullying.org, (2017). However, Tajfel andTurner (1979) argued against Erikson (1950) views as they defined identity as people that tend tocategories themselves into groups to gain a sense of their self-worth from a digital prospective. At thisstage it is important to understand cyberbullying from an individual prospective,it helps to understandhow children are affected by cyber bullying.This will also ensure that support is available for both thevictims and bullies of the victims as both are facing high risks(Whitty and Young,2017).According to Chadwick (2014), it has been analyzed that almost half of the population uses internetand every day they come across different websites. Such ease of access can lead to problems such ascyber bullying. It is reported that approximately half of the young internet users have experiencedsome sort of cyber bullying (Tokunaga, 2010). People have easy access to the internet because almostevery gadget is connected to it and it has increased the potential of cyber bullying.This is considered as harmful than the normal physical bullying because it hits the physiology ofteenagers. Normal bullying is aggressive behavior of a person towards another individual. Internetdoes not have any restrictions and policies which define privacy. Internet providers will hardly putrestrictions because if they do so their business will be go down. This issue is arising in a bigger wayand if no preventive measures taken, it can cause big harm.As stated by Hinduja and Patchin (2014), there are many ways through which children are affected byCyber bullying. It has been noticed that most of the damage is done by social media. This has becomethe easiest way to communicate with someone, a child sitting in UK can contact other teen who is partof USA. According to a report, youth of age group of 16 to 24 spends almost 27 hours a week oninternet. The number has been doubled from the statics which was 10 years before. . In these hours2
Nafeesa IqbalContemporary issue- Part 2IQB13073649they share photos, videos, posts on social media and this also include the messaging. It is affectingtheir day to day life because now they don't like outdoor sports which can help them in developingtheir mind and also make them physically strong. By continuously engaging on the internet they arecutting themselves from other activities as they are also not spending time with their parents. Manychildren use internet to release their anger and frustration and this can be considered as an intentionalact. Their daily routine gets disturb from this because most of the time they think of the activitieswhich has happened on the internet (Wade and Beran, 2011). Their thinking and analysing skillsreduces and they are not able to make proper decision.Whatever they do, reflects their condition and present state. For example; a teen who has beentalking to a girl on Facebook from last 2 months. All the time he is busy in this and continuouslyignore some of his important tasks which he has to do. But after a month he came to know that one ofhis classmate is operating that profile and is a boy. He has never felt this much low and depressed inhis life, so he started eating sleeping pills (Parris and et. al., 2012). It can be analysed that teenagersare easy targets because at this stage there is variation in hormone level. Whatever they experience,will set their mindset. It could impact their relations with parents, teachers and friends. They candevelop some sort of phobia in them. They are not able to judge what is good for them and dowhatever they want without knowing their consequences.According to Menesini and Spiel (2012), it has been analysed that there are various psychologicalfactors that is affected by cyber harassment. It directly impacts their mental health and which canbring anxiety in them. It is observed that victims of cyber bullying develops some sort of fear andphobia. They are not able to concentrate on their studies and day to day activities. When someone isbullied on internet, they sets a perception that it has been noticed by everyone. It increase the stresslevel because all the time they think of that only and feel that the situation they are handling are muchbigger. All this directly impacts their health and can make them ill and can experience the sysmpomsof depression and headache.With reference to Slonje, Smith and Frisé (2013), it can be understood that with cyber bullyingeducation, things can be improved at great extent. It is necessary that people should understand theimportance of E-safety. Parents who gives their children permission to use internet should also makethem aware about cyber bullying terminology. E- safety should not only be followed on internet butsome emphasis should also be given on other things through which teens communicate like mobilephones and tablets. It is the duty of their guardians that they should protect their ward from any harmand make sure that internet is used for a good cause. Those individuals who areconnectedto theirlife should guide them to proper path and make them acknowledge about hazards of internet.3
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