Training Programs for the Appf Members

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e-mail AND WWW
Teacher:Carlos Castro Paragulla
1.1Internet: network of networks
1.1.1 How to enter Internet
1.1.2 Interface through fiber optics
1.1.3 10 big mistakes on Internet
1.2World Wide Web
1.2.1 How to find information in WWW
1.2.2 Basics on page manufacturing
1.4Mailing lists
1.6Internet Relay Chat (IRC)
1.7Glossary on Internet terms
2.1Write a first WWW document
2.1.1 First WWW document
2.1.2 Possible problems which could have occurred
2.2HTML amateur guide
2.2.1 HTML language
2.2.2 Three fundamental rules
a) HTML is simple text
b) Tabs and line spacing
c) Special characters
2.2.3 Basic HTML commands
a) The paragraph command
b) The line break command
c) The header commands
d) Text appearance
e) Hypertext structure
2.2.4 Other HTML commands
a) The HTML command
b) Lists
c) Descriptive lists
d) Preformatted text
e) Centered text
f) Horizontal lines
3.1Making tables
3.2How to make references in a hypertext
3.2.1 References within the same document
3.2.2 References to other documents
3.2.3 Mixed references
3.3Including other elements in a hypertext
3.3.1 Images
3.3.2 Audio
3.3.3 Special characteristics
3.4URL forms
3.4.1 Referring to a hypertext
3.4.2 Referring to a hypertext section
3.4.3 Referring to any file
3.4.4 Referring an e-mail address
3.5HTML style guide
3.5.1 About the information itself
a) what does it offer
b) maximizing the advantages of a hypertext
c) using multimedia capacities
d) feedback ways
3.5.2 About search time
a) Indexes and more indexes
b) Transfer velocity
c) Periodical text revision
3.5.3 About the form
a) Logical formatting prior to physical formatting
b) Good HTML
c) The use of clicks
3.6Useful tips
3.6.1 The first 25 words
3.6.2 Messages on the status line
3.6.3 Quick loading images
3.6.4 Defining image size
The world network of networks, Internet, is considered an inexhaustible source
of information. Just one of its services, the World Wide Web, offers more than
60 million pages with data in text form, images or sound. The management of
this tool permits the user to know the latest advances about almost any subject
that is taking place in the world. Nevertheless, it is essential to know what it
offers and how to access its services. The objective of this manual is to
facilitate the entry into this sea of information that is Internet; in it are described
all the tools that it offers and some tips to speed up the information search
within the Network.
1.1 Internet: network of networks
The computer network, Internet, was born in 1969. It was created by a
group of researchers from the Defense Department of the United States
to establish a communication system with other agencies of the
Government. The fear that an attack could destroy all the information
stored in the same place obliged them to avoid storing the information in
one single central computer and, instead, store it in multiple
interconnected computers. It is currently estimated that Internet groups
25,000 networks, that communicate among themselves through
telephone line, fiber optics or via satellite.
Until the end of the eighties, Internet was mainly used by American
researchers and academicians, but in the present decade, since it began
to become popular among all kind of persons, it has grown at an
unrestrained pace, which makes a census in Internet as impossible to
carry out as counting the heads in a riot. Mindful of this, the Internet
population can be anything between 10 to 100 million users
The Internet does not have a director to manage or control it. Neither
does it belong to a private or governmental entity. The majority of its
services and resources are offered on a free basis to its users.
1.1.1. How to enter Internet
To connect to Internet the following implements are required:
A computer:
It is recommendable to have at least the following specifications: a 486
CPU or bigger, 4 or 8 megabytes (MB) of RAM memory and a 200 MB
hard disk.
Most computers in the market today include an internal modem; should
this not be the case, this can be bought separately in the market, and
connected through a cable to one of the serial ports of the PC. Its speed
is measured by the number of bits of information that it can transfer per
second (bps). The market offers modems of 14.400, 28.800, 36.600 or
52.200 bps at a price that is directly proportional to its speed. This
means that the faster the transmittal of data, the lesser the connection
time to the network. For example, a 28.800 modem downloads or
uploads 3600 words per second of connection; this means that a 145
kbytes document would take 8.05 seconds to fully appear on the screen.
Common telephone line:
It is a standard domestic use telephone line. All data and information is
transmitted through this media.
Access provider:
This connects computers with the operating system of Windows as well
as Macintosh. There are many companies that offer links to Internet and
the price of such connections has been dropping steadily. The first
providers in the market used to charge an initial fee and monthly fees
that were far beyond the means of the average budget. The use was
always for a limited number of hours and with overcharges for additional
connection time.
Currently, the majority of the companies offer unlimited access for a fixed
monthly fee and an initial registration fee. This includes an e-mail box
with unlimited storing capacity.
1.1.2 Interface through fiber optics
Interfacing Internet through fiber optics defeats the greatest limitation of
cyberspace: its exasperating slowness. The purpose of the following
article is to describe its mechanisms, advantages and disadvantages.
To navigate through the network of networks, Internet, not only do you
need a computer, a modem and some programs, but a great dose of
patience. A user may have to wait for several minutes in order for a page
to load or several hours trying to download a program from the network
to your PC.
This is due to the fact that the telephone lines, the media used by the
majority of the 50 million users to connect to Internet, was not meant to
transfer videos, graphics, texts and all the other elements that travel
from one site of the network to the other.
But telephone lines are not the only means to reach cyberspace. There
is a service that allows the user to connect to Internet through fiber
Fiber optics makes it possible to navigate in Internet at a speed of two
million bps, which is inconceivable in the conventional system, in which
the majority of the users connect through 28.800 or 36.600 bps
Another advantage of the service is the immediate access to Internet. In
a telephone connection, the user has to wait for his PC to dial the
number of his network access provider; if the line is busy, the process
can take several minutes and, in some cases, hours. Through fiber
optics, the person only has to activate his browser and he is already
connected to Internet (browser, a visualizer, a navigator or explorer is a
program that is used to navigate in the network).
Another benefit: as this connection is not through the telephone line, the
call can not be disconnected. It is common that after several hours of
downloading software through the Internet, the communication gets cut
and you have to restart the whole process. With fiber optics this never
occurs. The connection is direct and permanent. In addition, your
telephone line is not going to be busy while you are navigating.
The disadvantages of fiber optics services are: the limitation to connect
to Internet from more than one single place, the initial cost and a higher
monthly fee.
Since the connection is made through a fiber optics line that passes
close to your house, you can only connect to Internet when you are
physically there. By the conventional system, instead, there is no
limitation. As there are telephone lines in any part, the user can navigate
from home, the office, a hotel, a cellular telephone...
Likewise, only persons who live in the zones of the city which already
have a fiber optics network installation can connect through it.
The initial cost is another impediment. The traditional system of
connection only requires a PC, a modem (the apparatus that allows
computers to communicate by telephone lines). A modem costs between
100 and 200 dollars and the majority of the PC come with one included
(i.e. you do not have to by one separately).
In the case of fiber optics, it is necessary to buy a cable modem which is
the equivalent of the modem in the other system, as well as a network
card for the PC.
You also have to pay for the initial connection. In the other system you
do not have to pay anything because you already have the telephone
line at home.
The monthly fee too is higher for a fiber optics connection: the majority of
the companies which offer the services do not charge by the hour, but
instead for the amount of information transferred to the computer that is
measured in megabytes.
The telephone line connection has a variety of plans and prices offered
by a number of companies that allow for unlimited connection time.
1.1.3 10 big mistakes on Internet
The largest and fastest growing areas within the Internet are the three
"M": the Myths, the Misunderstandings and Misinformation.
Now that the network has become so popular, each newspaper, each
radio station and television station has an opinion to offer to Internet
backed up by a collection of half truths, misinterpretations and
absurdities. The following paragraphs will reveal the truth hidden behind
the ten biggest mistakes on Internet.
Mistake 1
The number of users is known:
As previously mentioned, carrying out a census of Internet users is like
trying to count the heads in a riot. You know that the number is fairly big
and there is a great possibility of counting some heads and leaving out a
great many, given the physical impossibility of searching in every corner.
Naturally, none of these ambiguities prevent market researchers or
interested corporations from trying to determine the size of the Network.
As a matter of fact, during the 10 month term that ended in the middle of
1996, at least 10 top level analysts tried to count the number of Internet
users. The definitions of what they were counting were all very different:
they varied from very vague to very specific information on the subject.
Their numbers varied even more than their definitions from 5.8 million
"North American users" with direct access to the Network up to 17.6
millions of "Home and office users within the United States of America".
During the same year other writers and researchers issued estimates
that confirmed that the base of Internet users at world level started at
23.5 millions (International Data Corporation) and reached up to 60
millions (Bob Metcalfe, InfoWorld).
Notwithstanding, after this jumble of numbers, we can conclude that the
Internet population stretches from anywhere between 10 to 100 million
users, approximately.
Mistake 2
Pornography is abundant
There are some dark alleys in cyberspace, some of them very dark
indeed, but they represent a modest and perhaps microscopic amount of
network traffic.
Some time ago, the Time magazine of the United States published a
story titled "Cyberporn", based on a research called: "Commercialization
of Pornography on the Information Highway", and repeated the absurd
lie that 83.5 % of the images in Usenet are pornography. The research
paper published by Martin Rimm from Carnegie Mellon University turned
out to be a complete fraud but this did not prevent it from hitting the
The journalist Brock N. Neeks from the CibeWire Dispatch online
publication won a prize for his report on the Time/Rimm scandal. What
was its conclusion? Based on the data provided by Rimm, it determined
that pornography at the most represented around 0.5 % of the daily
cyberspace traffic and there is still no serious research that can
contradict this figure.
Nevertheless, there is no doubt that the sensuous sites are quite
popular. According the registers of one of the most important search
services, sex, nude, www, chat, software, game, Windows and Microsoft
are the most popular keywords introduced in the search mechanisms.
However, it is almost impossible to accidentally encounter pornography
or Nazi propaganda in the Network and it is almost impossible not to find
it if one searches for it. The software solutions such as Solidoak,
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