Tourism Transportation Assignment

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TRANSPORT FOR TOURISMASSIGNMENT1. With reference to the intrinsic value of transport as atourism experience, discuss therole of transport in the tourism system and comment on factors that might affect demandfor different modes of transport.Thousands of years ago, it was not easy to move to further regions for the purpose of trading,finding resources or traveling,... People often walk or use animals such as camels or horses as atransportation mode depending on the culture and conditions of different regions. However, in along journey, they might face huge obstacles as well as wasting time and effort in order to get tothe desired destination. Along with technological advancement, great inventions have broughthumanity other diversified options: railway, the automobile, subway or plane, .... with greaterspeed and lower-cost services, which lead to the opportunity for travel widened. Together with it,the demand for tourism is also increasing due to societal development, and it cannot happenwithout transportation. Therefore, transport plays an essential role in the tourism industry.The first, as well as most important of transportation aspects in tourism, is to link the origin tothe destinations (Hall (1999)), which simply means to help the customer moving from the originto their place of interest and then return. However, countless researches have shown that the roleof transport in tourism can be discussed from other varied perspectives. Hall (1999) defined thattransportation also provides mobility and access within destinations as well as tourist attractions.Travelers usually move to various destinations or visit different parts within a tourist attraction.For instance, in the island tour, visitors might be picked up from the plane and continued by boatto the island. If the customer is only provided a fixed vehicle to use or is unable to move to otherlocations, customer satisfaction will be affected. In a similar way, a tourist attraction such as azoo is often offered different means to visit such as bicycles or electric trams. Thesetransportations have contributed an indispensable part to the overall tourist experience.Furthermore, in modern tourism, Dileep (2019) expands it into other 10 different roles such asFacilitator of tourism growth; Acting as primary attraction; Determinant tourist satisfaction;Major contributors in tourism’s socioeconomic benefits,...For example, the growth oftransportation helps to reduce travel time, costs, while improving accessibility, mobility as wellas a travel experience. In the past,people do not have many opportunities to travel or accessremote tourist services and places. Today, modes such as airplanes take an average of 1-2 hoursto carry passengers hundreds of kilometers at a cost-savings and provide additional services(meals,..etc). This has pushed some countries to become international destinations with theadvent of resorts, amusement parks, ... Apart from this, in difficult to access regions such as theArctic or mountainous regions with steep, complicated terrain; the road routes have beengradually expanded and improved, creating chances for tourists to access new and interestingattractions, thus improving the visitor's tourist satisfaction. Ethnic groups in mountainous areaswill have the opportunity to develop a tourism business, advance the quality of life. Therefore,tourism transportation plays a crucial role in tourism growth as well as tourism’s socioeconomicbenefits.Together with the evolution of technology and changes in customer behavior, transportationmodes in tourism are affected by various factors. A study by Westlake and Robbins (2005)recommended 5 factors:convenience, price, time limit, comfort, and distance. The level effectTransport for Tourism
of these factors depends on the different circumstances, however, they all have a major impacton customer’s selection on the type of transportation.For instance, when considering “distance"and “benefit" if the visitor wants to travel to another country, one of the fastest and mosteffective ways is an airplane. On the other hand, if the destination is in their neighborhood’s city,so the car is often recommended because it provides privates, saving cost and more mobilitywithin the city. In a similar case, the status also affects the demand for transportation modes.Usually, it is often measured as a combination of education, income, and occupation. Therefore,a person who has a high-class status and occupation in society, as well as a great salary, tends toprefer luxury transportation modes such as helicopter or business class ticket in an airplane. Inaddition, in case if their trip is of short nature,the time limit is another important factor touristlook at especially(Marell&Nordlund(2003)).Many tourists have only a few days for vacationso they do not want to spend a significant amount of time in transportation modes.Therefore, itis important to take notice of the time limit and whether it is an important factor in choosing atransportation mode.Transportation has been a crucial driver of the tourism industry. These two factors have aresonant relationship. The tremendous development of transportation paves the way for raisingthe demand for tourism, and in the same way, developing tourism will make the transportationsystem expand and improve. Therefore, in a long term, the government and businesses need tofocus on improving and enhancing the transportation system, as well as developing sustainabletourism transportation.6. Identify at least three important trends that are likely toaffect tourism transportation inthe next ten years, with specific reference to how this might affect countries in Asia.Globally, travel and tourism's direct contribution to GDP was approximately 2.9 trillion U.S.dollars in 2019(, according to the Mobility Market Outlook on COVID-19, the global revenue for the travel and tourism industry will be an estimated 396.37 billion U.S.dollars in 2020 - a decrease of around 42.1 percent from the previous year. This result has anegative impact on tourism transportation, as a number of countries, especially Asiacountrieswhere the strongest outbreak has halted international moving activities, including airplanes. Inaddition, COVID outbreak is not the only threat to the development of tourism. Dileep (2019)pointed out that political instabilities, economic downturns, ... are also contributing to theseserious challenges. Furthermore, nowadays customers are more prioritized about security, safety,health.. when using tourism transportation services. In the next 10 years, due to the tremendousgrowth of technology and society, the demand and standard of the customer for tourismtransportation also become tighter and it leads to the advent of diversified trends.First of all, it might require a more sustainable tourism transportation system. In fact, tourismtransportation puts enormous stress on air pollution,... The effect can gradually destroy theenvironmental resources on which tourism itself depends. In recent years, there has been agrowing awareness in recent years of the value of sustainable tourism growth. In China,transportation (including tourism transportation) is one of the biggest emitters of carbon dioxideafter the energy sector. As a result, the Chinese government has taken action to improve thisissue. For example, China's high-speed rail (HRS) supports sustainable development. ElectricMultiple Units use less energy than other vehicles and can generate electricity from a wide rangeTransport for Tourism
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