Assignment on Diabetes Types

Added on - 21 Apr 2020

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Running head: TYPE 1 DIABETESTYPE 1 DIABETESName of the StudentName of the universityAuthor’s note
1TYPE 1 DIABETESQ1.Pathophysiology of Diabetic Ketoacidosis-DKA is a major, acute life threatening condition that is normally associated to patientswith type 1 diabetes. It is rarely seen in patients having Type 2 diabetes.DKA is normally caused due to the active or the relative deficiency of insulin, accompanied bythe increase of counter regulatoryhormones involved in DKA, such as cortisol, glucagon,epinephrine growth hormone (Atkinson et al., 2014). This type of imbalance of the hormones ofour body leads to hepatic gluconeogenesis (generation of glucose from non carbohydratesubstrate), lypolysis (breaking down of lipids) (Knip & Siljander, 2008).The excessive counter regulatory hormones, hepatic gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysisleads to severe hyperglycemia.Lack of insulin results in the release of fatty acid from theadipose tissue (lypolysis), increasingthe amount of free fatty acids in the serum. HepaticMetabolism of the fatty acids leads to the formation of the acidic intermediates and metabolitessuch as ketones and ketoacids (Atkinson et al., 2014).Hormonal imbalance causes increased gluconeogenesis, renal and hepatic production ofglucose and impaired utilization of glucose by the peripheral tissues. This results inhyperglycaemia and hyperosmolarity. Studies have revealed that the inflammatory biomarkers(e.g., C-reactive protein [CRP], oxidative stress markers, pro-inflammatory cytokines,cardiovascular risks and, lipid peroxidation is also associated with hyperglycemic risks. when theaccumulated ketone bodies in the body exceeds the maximum capacity they are then found in theurine (Ketonuria) (Knip & Siljander, 2008).Greater accumulation of the acids leads to acidosis, which can cause respiratory distress such asshallowed breathing (Kassmaul respiration).Normally kidney has a low threshold value for the
2TYPE 1 DIABETESketo-acids which gets excreted out through the urine. More amount of ketoacids leads toelectrolyte loss resulting in acute dehydration with a large loss of sodium ions.Signs and symptomsThe common early signs and symptoms associated to DKA is polyuria. other signs andsymptoms of this clinical condition involves malaise, fatigue, vomiting ,nausea, can haveabdominal or muscular cramps, anorexia, loss of appetite, drastic weight loss in some patients,reduces perspiration, coma can occur at severe stages of the disease (Padgett et al., 2013). Fever,chills, chest pain, arthralgia and dyspnea can also occur.Unusual smell in the breadth is oftenfound.Q2. Difference between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetesCausesType 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease, where the immune system of the bodymistakenly attacks the beta cells of the pancreas that is responsible for producing insulin.Thereare some genetic markers that are responsible for the T1D.In type 2 diabetes the beta cells are not attacked by the immune system of the boy, ratherthe body normally stops responding to the secreted insulin and becomes insulin resistance. Thebody tries to compensate this condition and tries to produce more insulin, eventually it createsstress on the beta cells which may lead to their destruction, ceasing insulin production(Knip &Siljander, 2008).T2D is a life style disease and is mainly caused due to improper diet, obesity,use of alcohol, excessive consumption of the fatty food, excessive consumption of carbohydrate
3TYPE 1 DIABETESrich food. Stress can worsen the effects of T2D.Patients having family history of T2D are morelikely to have T2D in future.Genetic factors obviously play a role in diabetes, although 2persoms having same genetic mutation might not have the same effects of diabetes as diabeteslargely depends on the life style.PathophysiologyType 1DiabetesT1D is an autoimmune disease caused due to the development of anautoimmune response against the Beta cells antigen due to which very less amount of insulin isproduced inside the body, due to which the plasma glucagon level is increased.Increase in thecounter regulatory hormones causes volume depletionof the extracellular fluids, hyperglycemia,and decreased potassium ions in the body. Hormonal imbalance increases the rate ofgluconeogenesis, renal and hepatic glucose production, impaired utilization of glucose by thebody tissues leads to hyper glycemia (Knip & Siljander, 2008). Free fatty acids are released intothe serum from the adipose tissues. Hepatic metabolism of the fatty acids leads to the formationof the ketone bodies. Greater accumulation of the acids leads to acidosis, which can causerespiratory distress such as shallowed breathing or Kussmaul respiration.Type 2 Diabetes- T2D is mainly caused due to the combination of insulin resistance anddecreased secretion of insulin by the beta cells of pancreas, impaired regulation of glucoseproduction in the liver. Beta cell glucotoxicity is caused by the inhibitory effect of the glucosesecretion upon the release of insulin. Glycogen is accumulated in the beta cells due to prolongedglycemia (Kahn et al., 2014).Medicinal, dietary &exerciserecommendationsT1D
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