Analysis of theories and models of curriculum and development Assignment PDF

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Unit 502 Theories, principles and models to achieve
inspirational teaching and learning
Table of ContentsINTRODUCTION...........................................................................................................................................2
1.1 Analysis of theories, models, and principles of learning....................................................................2
1.2 Application of theories, principles, and models of learning...............................................................4
1.3 Analysis of models of learning preferences.......................................................................................6
1.4 Taking account of learners’ individual learning preferences.............................................................7
4.1 Analysis of theories and models of curriculum and development.....................................................7
4.2 Applications of theories and models of curriculum development.....................................................8
5.1 Analysis of theories and models of reflection and evaluation...........................................................9
5.2 Application of theories and models of reflection and evaluation....................................................10
2.1 Analysis of theories, principles, and models of communication......................................................10
2.2 Application of theories, principles, and models of communication.................................................11
3.1 Analysis of theories, principles, and models of assessment............................................................12
3.2 Application of theories, principles, and models of assessment.......................................................12
Conclusion.................................................................................................................................................13
REFERENCE................................................................................................................................................13
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INTRODUCTION
Learning means making a permanent change in one’s mind. In the process of
learning, teachers play the most important role. They shape the learners’ mind which is
why they are considered the architect of a nation. Educating someone is not a simple
task as there are lots of psychological aspects. This teaching-learning process
continues for a long time and educators have to apply different types of theory, model
and process to achieve the learning goal. Naturally, all students are not the same, all
students can not be taught in the same way. We can not even judge what they learn in
the same way. That is why educators and psychologists have been researching to make
education more interesting and effective for all kind of students. I have been teaching
computer science for a long time. These models and theories always help me to make
an effective teaching-learning plan and also solve complex problems. This paper is
written based on my practical experiences and research work of other educator and
psychologists.
Task 01: Understand the application of theories, principles and
models of learning in education and training.
A good teacher always tries to make his/her lessons effective to all of his/her students.
As all the students are not equal there is no particular theory or model that can make all
student learn properly. That is why teachers are always applying these theories
according to students age, behaviour, nature and learning process.
1.1 Analysis of theories, models, and principles of learning
Behaviourism:This theory deals with human and animal behaviour. It gives us a
proper idea to understand why and how an animal or a humane behave. American
psychologist John B Watson introduced the idea of behaviourism and that is why he is
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considered the father of behavioural science.Through behaviourism one can train
someone in a way he or she wants. Famous scientist Pavlov experimented with some
dog. When the dogs were served food, it made them salivate. He made some bell-
ringing while the foods were served. After someday he found that the bell-ringing can
salivate those dogs. They did not need any food to make them salivate. In the same
way, a teacher can form a particular behaviour of a student to learn new things. To do
that she can use positive reinforcement. For example, if a student is not interested in
learning something, the teacher can motivate him/her to learn that thing by making
different strategies. These strategies continuously motivate a student to learn new
things.(What Is The Behavioral Learning Theory?, 2021)But this only happens if the
positive reinforcement is working perfectly. Here comes the negative sides of
behavioural learning theory.The learning process is not natural here because teachers
make the student learn using external factors.Moreover, the students in this process
are passive learners. Even this learning theory does not work everywhere when the
lessons are related to creative things.
Cognitivism:This theory helps us to understand how internal and external factors
influence a human brain to process new information. Ulric Neisser is considered the
father of cognitive psychology. This theory mainly deals with how our mind creat
relations between new information and experienced things. For example, it is easier to
memorize the names of elements in the periodic table with help of some rhythm. It
simply is the process where a learner takes new information and modify it with what he/
she already knows. Here students are not passive learners. They participate in this
process actively to learn new things. This theory can be applied by teachers to make
his/her student more efficient in learning new things. This can be done by some
strategies like presenting information graphically, making flow charts, taking short
quizzes and exams. In short, if a teacher can make information visible students will be
able to learn it quicker. This process develops a students brain and makes him/her
more efficient. Though this seems to be the perfect way of learning but it is not. As it is
highly dependent on learners’ previous experience, it is hard to make for a teacher a
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proper cognitive strategy. It takes a huge amount of background research and
investigation. Moreover, this is extremely time-consuming.
Constructivism:In this learning theory students not only passively take information,
but they also construct knowledge. Different people experience the world in different
ways. With their experiences, they build their own representation of knowledge. They do
not just receive information, they learn new things by applying that information.
(Constructivism, 2021)As it is more engaging, a learner finds it more interesting. A
teacher can apply this theory in his/her classroom to make the lessons more interesting
and effective. He/she can arrange a debate on a topic, question-answer session, project
work, group discussion. These things make a learner actively participate and apply their
knowledge in their own way. Through this process, they can learn more than
behavioural learning or cognitive learning. But it has also its dark side. As it is
dependent on other students to implement, sometimes it is difficult to apply in the
classroom. Because all students learning capability is not equal.
Humanism:This is a student-centric learning process. This theory focuses on human
being and the basics needs of human. Because this needs control human behaviour
directly. This theory also focuses on solving humanistic problems. This theory was
established byAbraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, and James F. T. Bugental. This theory
suggests that the students are inherently good. They can learn new things if all their
basic needs are met. Because humans are dependent on their feelings more than
rewards. That means a student can learn properly only if his/her needs are fulfilled
properly. Here teacher plays an important role. He/she needs to understand the
student’s condition in order to teach. Self-evaluation is the most important thing here.
(What Is Humanistic Learning Theory in Education?, 2021)
1.2 Application of theories, principles, and models of learning
First and foremost a teacher must understand his/her students. Without understanding a
student no one can make him learn. As a teacher, I must know my students properly.
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