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Running head: UTI CASE STUDYUTI Case StudyStudent’s NameInstitution Affiliation\Date of Submission
UTI CASE STUDY2UTI Case StudyProvide a basis for the connection between urinary tract infections (UTIs) and acute kidneydisease (AKD).A Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) occurs when bacteria in the bladder, urethra or kidneysmultiplies into the urinary tract. Acute kidney disease (AKD) occurs when the kidneys no longerhave the ability to get rid of excess fluids, salts and waste from the blood. The connectionbetween a UTI and Acute Kidney disease is that when the former is left untreated, it could leadto acute kidney disease. This could in turn lead to the permanent damage of vital organs andeventually lead to kidney failure. One of the symptoms of a UTI and acute kidney disease isflank pain which was evident in the patient (Prakash & Ramasubramanian, 2016). This is painexperienced on one side of the body between the hips and ribs or between the abdomen and theback. Flank pain can be considered a sign of a kidney problem. Additionally, the patient showedsome signs of confusion and this is another symptom of acute kidney disease as well as UTI insenior patients. Another symptom of UTI observed on the patient was the discharge of cloudyand concentrated urine which had a foul smell (Allen, 2016).Explain the clinical association or relationship between UTI and confusion in theelderly.A UTI can be the cause of confusion as well as other symptoms of dementia in seniorpatients. This is sometimes mistaken for the very early stages of Alzheimer’s disease ordementia.The symptom of confusion in a patient suffering from a UTI may be vague and canmimic other health conditions.Since confusion is usually a vague and uncommon symptom ofUTIs, it makes it difficult to make a diagnosis in older patients (Nicolle, 2016). Thus, a simple
UTI CASE STUDY3urinalysis is conducted upon the suspicion of a UTI as in John’s case whose results showed thathe indeed had a UTI. When an older patient has the classic symptoms of a UTI, they may not bein a position to inform their care givers. This is usually because of age-related issues such asAlzheimer’s disease or dementia that bring about some confusion. Dementia also puts elderlypatients at the risk of contracting a UTI and it is sometimes termed as a risk factor. It is importantto look out for signs of confusion in senior adults because they may not exhibit the commonsigns of a UTI (Balogun & Philbrick, 2014). This is because their immune systems are notentirely capable of mounting a significant response to such an infection. Besides the absence ofnoticeable signs in majority of the older individuals fail to or cannot express their levels ofdiscomfort to care providers (Mitchell, Fasugba, Beckingham, Bennett & Gardner, 2016).Describe why John’s clinical signs have climbed now.John’s clinical signs have climbed up beyond the normal vital sign ranges for an averageadult who is healthy because of the UTI infection. His temperature is at 400C which is above theaverage 370C for a healthy adult. He was breathing at 26 breaths per minute while a healthy adultbreaths 12 to 18 breaths per minute. His pulse was at 102 bpm whilst the rate should be at 60 to102 bpm. This can also be associated with his past medical history of asthma and congestiveheart failure. If at all the heart failure had gone untreated, it could have caused the complicationsof kidney damage or failure. This is because heart failure reduces the flow of blood to thekidneys and if left untreated, one suffers from kidney failure (Jarvis, Chan & Gottlieb, 2014). Hemay have acquired these diseases from tobacco use when he smoked during his outdoor work.Besides smoking, the asthma could have been caused by airborne substances like dust and pollenor air irritants and pollutants such as smoke since he used to do an outdoor job at the city council.He is an Aboriginal who used to work and live alone and this could have triggered strong
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