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WOMEN’S HEALTH1Women's health issues are catching attention day-by-day. Many countries are conducting thesurvey on women health status and nourishment. In Egypt, demographic and health survey(EDHS) was conducted in 2005, which represent the household survey of 18134 women aged15-49 years. It also provides information about health, fertility, family planning child andmaternal health and nutrition (Francis, W. 2016)Women's access to contraception has adverse effects on women health and fertility. Decliningtotal fertility as a negative impact of contraception become an important factor in the mid-1980s.Total fertility rate remains above three live birth per women in Egypt. But short birth intervalshas an adverse impact on women's health as well as infant health. They have consequences in theform of proper nutrition and maternal recovery. Family planning campaign was conducting bycountries for optimal birth spacing. Optimal birth spacing can be achieved through the use ofcontraceptives and family planning. Individual directly involved in unintended pregnancyaffected by health problems and indirectly affects the society as well which is a major problem ofpublic health, usage of contraceptive is a usual method most couples are using who avoidingpregnancy. Every woman can find contraceptive method suited to their age in this ideal worldwith numbers of contraceptive available in the market. Consequently, women adopted somecontraceptive method until she is no longer exposed to changing life circumstances and risks ofunintended pregnancy lead to change a different method.Modern contraceptive leads to a reduction in unwanted pregnancy, high fertility, and maternalmortality rates. Here is an indication that replacement level of fertility in Egypt pivots furtherdeclines in martial fertility. This is resulting from a reduction in wanted fertility and expansion infamily planning program coverage. In Egypt, Total fertility rate falls from 3.9 to 3.1 from 1992to 2005 respectively. But there are another factor as well which stimulates high population in1
WOMEN’S HEALTH2Egypt, child gender discriminatory like son preferences, side-effects of contraceptive keeppeople away from the policy of adopting two child norm.Practices to access contraceptionIn Egypt first condoms were found in 1350BC which was made up of colored linen soaked inolive oil, some of them were made from sheep membranes to prevent infectious diseases. Mostused contraception was birth control pills which contain hormones that are estrogens whichprevent the fetus growth. As pomegranate contain natural estrogen, Grinding pomegranate grainsalso used to make contraceptive cones with the help of wax. Egyptian medical doctor'sprescribed crocodiles or elephant excrements mixed with honey, dates, or other substances usedin ointments as birth control almost 3800 years ago (Shaikh, B. T., Azmat, S. K., & Mazhar, A.2013).Law and policiesThe idea of public funds for all Planned Parenthood was to adopt all over the world. Egyptgovernment sponsored programs that provide free contraception to citizens which includecondoms, birth control pills, and intra-uterine devices. Egypt starts publicly supportededucational programs in sexual health for adults and youth. In 1985, Egypt signed the treaty ofthe committee on the elimination of discrimination against women. The policies and practices formost basic reproductive health services in Egypt have become a social norm (Metwally, A. M.,Saleh, R. M., Abdelhamed, A. M., Salama, S. I., Mores, C. W., Shaaban, F. A., & Azmy, O. M.2015).The Sexual Rights Initiative1 and the Egyptian Initiative for Personal Rights2
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