Consequentialist Theory is when focus is on result instead of action itself. Non-Consequentialist Theory is that if an action was wrong, it does not matter what the result came out.
1. Normative Ethics: Unwritten rules about what is good or bad
2. Teleological theories: An approach to ethics focussing on rightness or wrongness of actions themselves, without any other considerations
3. Deontological theories: An approach to ethics focussing on rightness & wrongness of actions themselves, without any other considerations ( Non-Consequentialist theory)
4. Ethical Egoism: Holds that we all act in our own self interest, but we cannot do it at the cost of harming the society.
5. Utilitarianism: Greatest amount of happiness for greater number of people
Egoism promotes self-interest not at cost of others.
Hedonism says do whatever makes you happy in life, pain and pleasure only sources of value
Divine Command theory: resolution of dilemmas based on religious beliefs.
Theses of Utilitarianism:
- Consequentialism (actions determined solely by their consequences)
- Maximalism (right action produces greatest good consequences and the least bad)
- Universalism (consequences affect everyone equally)
Utilitarianism suggests that the consequence of an act is the real measure of good or bad. Such theories that emphasize on consequences are called teleological or consequentialist.
Types of Imperatives
1. Hypothetical Imperative: A moral obligation that applies only of one desires the implicated goal.
2. Categorical imperative: Universal, applicable at all times. Argues that a sense of duty comes from rational nature - an internal source
Theory of Justice
1. Also known as fairness theory
2. Basis of Society is set of unspoken rules. The agreed upon principles must not be discriminating
3. People with rational needs will choose following two principles
- Principles of equal liberty: Whether the action protects our rights from invasion & provides rights for us equal to the rights of others. This principle goes beyond protecting us from invasions of our privacy to prohibiting force, fraud, and deception
- The Difference Principle: There will be inequalities, but we are morally obligated to improve the worst off unless it would make everyone worse off.
- Principle of Fair Equality of Opportunity: Requires that job qualifications be related to the job. There must be equal access to training for the most desirable jobs.
Kohlberg’s Three Levels of Moral Development
Based on virtues, Lawrence Kohlberg presents questions to kids of different ages.
1st Level: Pre-Conventional Stage: If you are doing good, you will be rewarded. If you are doing bad, you will be punished. No cognition involved.
2nd Level: Conventional Stages: You do something because everyone is doing it in the society. Milgrim’s experiment.
3rd Level: Post-Conventional Stage: Your action is based on what you think is right. If something happens in society, you decide for yourself using your conscience whether it is right or not.
Carroll’s 4-part Model of CSR
CSR includes the economic, legal, ethical, and philanthropic expectations placed on organizations by society at a given point in time according to Carroll and Buchholtz.
1. Philanthropic Responsibilities (Desired by Society)
2. Ethical Responsibilities (Required by Society)
3. Legal Responsibilities (Expected by Society)
4. Economic Responsibilities (Required by Society)
Three Models of Ethical Management
1. Immoral Management: Active opposition of what is ethical. Immoral managers intentionally do wrong. They are self-centered & self-absorbed caring only about org’s profit & success. They actively oppose what is right, fair, or just. They exhibit no concern for stakeholders. An ethics course would probably not help them.
2. Moral Management: Conforms to highest standards of ethical behavior or professional standards of conduct. Strives to be ethical in terms of its focus on elevated ethical norms & professional standards of conduct, motives, goals, orientation toward law.
3. Amoral Management: Grey area. You somehow know that something is wrong, but it is a norm in the society e.g., selling cigarettes despite knowing that they are a cause of lung cancer. It is a decision-making model with managers’ ethical gear stuck in neutral.
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