ACG709 STRATEGIC BRANDING AND DESIGN
Assessment 1: Research Project
Brand architecture is a company’s hierarchical brand structure that specifies brand. It deals with organizing the brands in relation to market opportunities, relevance and segments. According to Keller “The branding strategy, or brand architecture, for a firm tells marketers which brand names, logos, symbols and so forth to apply to which new and existing products.” Corporate companies must define their brand architecture after taking the market, competitors and the inter brand relationships to deliver maximum returns and grow the stakeholder value (Petromilli et al. 2002). Having an organized brand architecture creates a synergy among the sub-brands and the Masterbrand which helps the organization to deliver the brand promise.
The number of brand architecture types varies. Olins suggested three approaches namely Monolithic, Endorsed and Brand identity. Aaker and Joachimsthaler suggested nine different types. Despite these theoretical proposals real-life brand architectures adopt a mixed method of different brand architecture types, to best suit their brand relationship spectrum and strategies. The most commonly used ones are briefly discussed below.
Monolithic or Branded House model
In a monolithic model a ‘Masterbrand’ takes up a dominant role and the ‘sub-brands’ are used more like descriptors of the products for the masterbrand. For brands like these it is ideal to have limited number of products as to not lose focus on what the brand stands for. This is one of the most common brand architectures. In the monolithic model the masterbrand is always present and its name is included in the extensions. With brands which follow this and have reputation and strong presence can lead their existing and future brands to success. On the downsize, the products and services are all linked to the parent brand, i.e if the parent brand fails to impress the consumers, they will never be interested in the sub-brand. A simple yet best example for a Branded house model is Google and its sub-brands. For all Google’s sub-brands and extensions,
the image of the Masterbrand is evident even in their names. For example, Google maps, Google drive, Google Play etc House of brands model
For a house of brand architecture model it is important to elivate each sub-brand products and services and offer distinct value propositions. The presence of the marsterbrand is minimal making the burden of the values associated with it on the sub-brand minimal as well. According to Harish the strategy is divided further into two groups
1. No connection between the master and sub-brands (or product brands)
2. Loose connection between the master and sub-brands which is referred to as shadow endorsing. (The brands are not visibily linked, but many cosnsumers know about the link).
This can be considered as ones of the most flexible architecture. The parent company can access multiple services and products while each brand has their own reach and presence in the market. This method shields the associate brands from reputation damage when one of them is under scrutany. Examples for house of barnds are Unilever and P&G.
Figure 1 Google brand architecture
Source: adozeneggs.co.uk, n.d
Figure 2 P&G brand architecture
Source: blog.frankefiorella.com, n.d.
A hybrid architecture is a mixture of two or more models. This is used often these days due to the fluctuating business environments and pressures. A company considers multiple aspects like the value added by the masterbrand to the new product or service, the masterbrand’s reach to new consumers and many such aspects. The main models that are included in a hybrid approach are
1. Sub-brands: which has a very strong association between the Masterbrand and their products. They are at times referred to as co-drivers, if their contribution towards the product is equal.
2. Endorsed brand: here the brands have a distinction from the masterbrand, but the endorsement is done by the parent brand. This method allows the brand to have its own associations and the support of the parent brand. Some brands show the association to the parent brands in the form of logos. For example, Mccafé which is a brand assocated with McDonalds.
Other examples for companies with a hybrid approach are Adobe, Amazon, Cocacola, Microsoft etc
Figure 3 Adobe brand architecture
Source: medium.com, n.d
The image below shows a pictorial comparison between the three explained brand architecture models.
Figure 3 Comparison of three brand architectures
Source theprimacy.com, n.d.
When we are talking about a brand’s personality, we are describing how the brand is represented and expressed in association with human personality traits such as “creative”, “cool”, “playful” and so on (Keller, 2013, p.115). The image below shows the archetypes which bands can be related with.
According to Keller, while creating a brand personality, the best way to start is to ask questions like: how do you describe this brand as a person? gender? What is the person wearing? And so on.
According to Aaker’s paper, there are two other ways to determine a brand personality. First is to compose a ad hoc scale, but this method might skip some key traits and hence is considered unreliable. The second method is to develop a framework of five brand personality dimensions namely:
Ruggedness- these brands are correlated with strong, tough and rugged.
Figure 4 Brand Personality Archetypes
Source: millwardbrown.com, n.d.
Sophisticated- they are more glamorous, charming and pretentious.
Competence- they are seen to be reliable, dependable, efficient and responsible.
Excitement- this is correlated to spirited, daring, up-to-date and adventurous.
Sincerity- these brands are correlated to words like honest, cheerful, genuine and domestic.
Most brands use brand personality to convey a message to their target audiences’. This is very important step because a wrong personality may lead to a wrong set of target audience. Example, even when both Nike and Gucci are clothing and footwear brands, they have entirely different brand personalities. Nike is presented as more of an adventurous, exciting and active brand. While, Gucci is more on the sophisticated and glamorous brand.
When we take brands like Malboro and Harley-Davidson we can think of nothing in common as one is an automobile brand and the other is a cigarette brand. But when we think of their brand personality, they both have a very adventurous, rugged and masculine. This is how a well-made brand personality elevates a brand.
Figure 5 Logos of Malboro and Harley-Davidson
Source: louis.eu and ciggiesworld.ch, n.d.
Simply put marketing mix is characterized as putting out a correct product at the right place and time. Though it appears to be simple, it requires a great deal of research to utilize the marketing mix at its best and keep the correct product at the right place for its worth. Among many proposed theories for a marketing mix, the 4Ps and 7Ps are the most popular ones.
The Four Ps marketing mix
This method was created by Jerome McCathy in 1960.
1. Product: the product is basically the item which is being manufactured by the company to satisfy the needs of a target group.
2. Price: the amount of money a costumer pays for the product is referred to as price. This is one of the most crucial elements of a marketing mix.
3.Promotion: The practice used to increase brand awareness and sales is promoting the product in forms of advertisements in both traditional (television, radio, newspaper, billboards, magazines) and non-traditional (social media and situational experiences). Some other elements of promotion include public relations, sales promotion and sales organization.
4.Place: the placement of the product is where the product is sold. Place otherwise known as distribution, is a very important part of marketing mix. This can be executed only after a deep understanding of the target market. (The Marketing mix, n.d).
Figure 6 4Ps Marketing mix
Source: dreamstime.com, n.d.
The Seven Ps marketing mix
In the 7Ps model three more Ps are added to the existing 4Ps, in order to include the service industry in the marketing mix. These are explained below
People: People include the consumers as well as the people directly involved in the company. Customer service is a key aspect of the service industry and a company’s mix. It is also important to research if there are enough people in the company’s target market for better profits.
Process: Process is the functioning way of a business organization. The execution of the services is affected by the processes and systems of the company. A systematic and well-tailored process is very essential for an organization to minimize their expenses and maximize their efficiency.
Physical Evidence: the establishment of a branding is essential to create an emotional and psychological connection to the brand. The physical evidence is proof of the company’s services, presence and establishment.
Figure 7 7Ps Marketing mix
Case Study: Unilever global
Unilever global is of the most valuable multinational, fast moving consumer goods corporation. The company, has over 400 product brands and markets in 190 countries across the globe. Their product range include food, cleaning, beauty, personal care and beverages (Unilever global, 2020). Some of the brands owned by Unilever are, Dove, Axe, Lynx, Comfort, Lipton. Unilever’s main competitors are P&G and Nestle`. Some of the main touch points and their shareholders are listed below.
From what we covered in part one, it is evident that Unilever follows a free-standing house of brands brand architecture. The brands have their own identity and personality (but the consumers are aware of the link between the parent brand and the sub-brand). They follow a 4Ps marketing mix and their personality can be described as friendly, caring and responsible.
Figure 8 Unilever Global Logo
Source: Unilever global.com, 2020
Figure 9 Unilever Global brand architecture
Source: www.beyounotthem.com, n.d.
Website is a pre-purchase touchpoint that informs the potential consumers about the brands, products and services of Unilever. The stakeholders are consumers, employees, designers and shareholders.
Advertising is also part of the pre-purchase experience with stakeholders like consumers, employees, media, shareholders, advertisers, directors, competitors and general public. Unilever advertises as an organization and its presence is very small in their brand advertisements. For example, in the below ad there is a strong presence of Unilever.
Figure 10 Unilever Website
Source: Unilever global.com, 2020
Figure 11 Unilever ad
Source: Unilever global instagram
And in the next ads only Unilever is being advertised with some social awareness content.
Figure 12 Unilever newspaper ad
Source: Times of India, 2018
Figure 13 Unilever ad
Source: Unilever global instagram, n.d.
And finally in these ads below the brand product is endorsed and the presence of Unilever is very small.
Figure 15 TResemme magazine ad
Source: Tresemme.com, n.d.
Figure 14 Axe newspaper ad
Source: Axe.com, 2015
The social media is a huge advantage to organizations in this modern era. Social media is a pre-purchase touchpoint which includes stakeholders like consumers, content creators, employees, shareholders, competitors and general public. The images below are from various social media platforms like Instagram and Youtube.
A mobile application is a purchase experience. The stakeholders include consumers, app designers, employees and suppliers.
Figure 16 Unilever Youtube channel Source: Unilever Youtube, 2020
Figure 17 Unilever Instagram Source: Unilever global instagram, 2020
Figure 18 Unilever App
Source: Unilever global applications, 2020
5.Word of mouth
Word of mouth is a part of the pre- purchase experience which creates a very strong impression of the brand. The stakeholders are consumers, employees, suppliers, media, general public and competitors.
6. Public Relations
The image and impression of an organization in public is created due to good PR, which is part of the pre-purchase experience. Employees, customers, government bodies, shareholders, media and general public are part of the stakeholders.
7.Products and Packaging
The products of the sub-brands with a Unilever logo is also part of purchase experience. Employees, designers, vendors and consumers are the stakeholders.
8.Social Awareness Campaigns
Awareness campaigns are a huge part of the touch points. Their sponsorships and association with UNICEF is well recognized among public. Volunteers, employees, shareholders, directors, consumers, general public and media are part of the stakeholders.
Figure 20 Unilever logo on Tresemme shampoo
Source: Tresemme, 2020
Figure 19 Word of mouth
Source: Talkinfluence.com, n.d.
9. Product Experience and Customer service
The product experience is part of the post purchase experience and the consumers rely mostly on this to decide to continue the brand or not. The customer service is also very important to see hoe the company engages their consumers. The most important stakeholders here are the employees and the consumers along with the manufacturers and shareholders.
Figure 22 UNICEF & Unilever partnership Source:UNICEF.com, 2020
Figure 21 UK and Unilever Campaign Source: Dairy industries, 2020
Figure 23 Employees
Source: youthhop.com, n.d.
10. Annual Report The final touchpoint is an annual report. This is a post purchase experience meant for the shareholders. The main stakeholders are the employees, investors, financial markets, fund managers, government bodies, consumers and shareholders.
Figure 24 Unilever Annual report Source: Unilever global.com, 2019
Case Study: Paris
Paris is a major European city in France and is known as a global centre for fashion, art and culture. The slogan for the place is je T’ame Paris which is I love Paris.
The website is part of the pre-purchase with customers, government, employees, media and competitors as stakeholders.
Figure 26 Paris website
Figure 25 Paris logo Source: unconsideration.com, n.d.
Social media has a great reach and is the best platform to reach different people across the globe. The stakeholders are customers, employees, content creators, media, general public, government, and visitors. But unfortunately, Paris tourism does not use social media to its full extent. The only have social media presence due to travellers and tourists who share the beauty of the city. Some blogs and communities like Paris Hip, Paris (#thisisParis) have a good presence in social media, but not a great reach. Hope Paris tourism will adapt a good social media marketing soon.
Figure 27 Paris Instagram handle
Source: Instagram, 2020
Figure 28 This is Paris community
Source: paris always something to discover instagram handle, 2020
Figure 29 Tourists posting on Instagram Source: Instagram Paris, 2o2o
The pre-purchase touchpoint can occur from a television ad, magazine ad or even an ad at the airport. The stakeholders are the media, advertising agencies, employees and customers.
4.Word of mouth
As explained previously word of mouth plays a huge role in making people select a brand or a place, because the one suggesting it is a fellow consumer and not a payed advertiser. The stake holders are the tourists, employees, media, and customers.
Figure 30 Paris tourism ad
Figure 31 Word of mouth S
5. Public Relations
A good PR strategy is highly important for a place branding word. This is the touchpoint that gives information and promote the brand. The stakeholders are tourists, public, media, professional associates and governments.
The local and international tourist organizations are part of the pre-purchase (or visit) touchpoints. The stakeholders will be the employees, tourists, campaign workers, general public and media.
Paris tourism organization and the government body launched a snapchat campaign to reach tourists and young audiences. They launched special Paris Magazine filter which were viewed and shared by 5.7 million people (Netimperative, 2020). the stakeholders here are the employees, government body, tourists, snapchatters and media.
Figure 33 Snapchat Campaign
Source: netimperative.com, 2020
Figure 32 Tour guide
8. Environment and Convenience
This is a purchase experience or in case of a place a visiting experience. The design and elevation elements of the place to attract the toursts. Along with that the public transport, navigation, service and maps facilities should be included for the convenience of both local and international tourists. The stakeholders are government, employees, designers, media, public workers and visitors.
Figure 34 Modren architecture
Figure 35 Public transport
Source: travelsavvy.com, n.d.
Figure 36 Paris city map
Source: pariscityvision.com, n.d.
9. Quality and expectations
When people visit a place, they expect to see what was advertised. So the companies need to make sure the quality of their experience is work the amount they spent. The stakeholders are the advertisers, government, media, visitors and marketers.
They are the most visible post-purchase or visit experience. The stake holders are the vendors, suppliers, public and visitors.
Figure 37 Souvenirs
Source: discoverwalks, n.d.
Case Study: Pedigree
Pedigree petfoods is a subsidiary of the Mars American group founded in 1957(Pedigree, 2020). They provide grants for dog rescue organizations, dog shelters and dog adaptions. Some of the touch points are listed below.
Stakeholders for this pre-purchase touchpoint are consumers, employees, web designers and shareholders.
Figure 39 Pedigree website Source pedigree.com, 2020
2. Social Media
The stakeholders for this pre-purchase touchpoint are social media content developers, advertisers, employees, general public and consumers.
Figure 16 Pedigree logo
Figure 40 Pedigree India Instagram
They are also pre-purchase touchpoints. The stakeholders are advertisers, shareholders, media, public, employees and consumers.
Figure 41 Pedigree magazine ad
Source: Dogs and pups magazine,2020
Figure 42 Pedigree UK ad
This is a purchasing experience touchpoint for which consumers, designers, vendors, suppliers and employees are stakeholders of.
Figure 43 Packging of Pedigree
Source: timcooper, n.d.
5. Adoption and bot fairs
These are purchasing experience where people adopt pets and buy the product. Employees, volunteers, customers, media and general public are stakeholders.
Figure 44 Adoption fair
Figure 45 Mars Pedigree employees
Source: auroranewsregister, n.d.
7. Veterinary clinic display
The stakeholders are the employees, the veterinarians, consumers and vendors.
8.Brand ambassadors they are one of the best pre-purchase touchpoints with employees, shareholders, media and public as stakeholders.
Figure 46 Veterinary showcase
Figure 47 , 48 Brett Lee as Pedigree Brand ambassador
Source: daily news, indiafreestuff, 2013
This is part of the post-purchase touchpoint and crucial to make the customers return to the product next time around. Some of the stakeholders are employees, shareholders, directors and consumers.
Figure 49 Customer service
This is a post-purchase touchpoint meant for shareholders, employees, investors, government and consumers.
Figure 50 Annual report of parent company
Source: Mars petcare, 2019
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