How Egypt was influenced by non-Egyptians from 2345-1550 BCE
The interaction of Egyptians with foreign nations and people between the End of the Old Kingdom and the beginning of the New Kingdom influenced them in a major way as they evolved into a new kingdom. They became a stronger nation led by a pharaoh who with the acquired knowledge learned from foreigners, he was able to create great wealth that enabled huge construction project such as the pyramids and was able to connect trade networks along the Nile, in the Red Sea, and the near east. With the importance of the region's agricultural production and economic resources, Egypt flourished to be a great nation.
Egypt's rulers greatly shifted the Nile valley as it was an important location in the region's agricultural production and economic resources. It was considered to be a part of the Egyptian national state territory. However, it did not have too much authority in the region as Thebes was then the center of religion and power. Repeated struggles for Egypt's political control reflected on how important the region was as the Nile River provided a sustainable means of water, and people could easily survive there as the surrounding regions were all deserts. This brought about the Egyptians' conquering by the Hyksos at around 1650 BCE from the Middle East. They imposed their political rule over the Egyptians. They also brought many cultural and technological innovations such as pottery, new crops, bronze working, battle axes, the horse and chariot, and warfare techniques (Morenz et al 2010). They influence the shift of the Nile valley as it became a much important center in the Nineteenth Dynasty's politics.
Divine Kingship in the political structure was born after the unification of political rulers in different Egyptian kingdoms. The idea behind divinity was to showcase the favor the political ruler held was from a god or gods. This became firmly established in Egypt as they also had myths that surrounded the unification, such as Narmer was Horus, a god of Lower Egypt, where he originally ruled. He conquered Set, a god of Upper Egypt, which gave legitimacy to the king’s rule. Constant attacks from the neighboring kingdoms led to this unification as they found ways to take back power from their conquerors and expand their kingdom. Unification enabled Egyptians to have a standing military that was well trained, and this showed they had regained control over other nations (Popko 2013). Hatshepsut established trade networks that gave immerse wealth to Egypt, which enabled her to commission construction projects and repair temples that were neglected during Hyksos rule.
The use of hieroglyphics enabled them to conduct huge construction projects such as building the Great Sphinx of Giza and the pyramid of Khafre as they could communicate in the form of writing, and they used images to express meanings, which made project delivery easy. This enabled them to keep records as they could coordinate labor and resources to construct these projects. Projects to improve agricultural production were important as the population required larger supplies of food. Having learned new technology from the Hyksos, they constructed canals and grew new food to feed the population (Ilin 2016). Gaining new technology enabled the advancement of ship building in Egypt as they could conquer the waters with their strong ship.
Summarily, the influence of outsiders in the Egyptian kingdom was an influence in shaping the success of the empire. We have realized how Egypt's rulers greatly shifted the Nile valley as it was an important location in the region's agricultural production and economic resources. Divine Kingship in the political structure was born after the unification of political rulers in different Egyptian kingdoms. The use of hieroglyphics enabled them to conduct huge construction projects such as building the Great Sphinx of Giza and the pyramid of Khafre as they could communicate in the form of writing, and they used images to express meanings, which made project delivery easy.
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