Question-   Learning, Memory, and Product Positioning

Solution-

Chapter 9 Learning, Memory, and Product Positioning
216
Multiple Choice Questions


1. How did Johnson & Johnson hope to reposition St. Joseph's Aspirin?
A) as the best source of arthritis pain relief in adults
B) as the best source of pain relief in children
C) as the best source for a low-dosage aspirin regime to reduce the risk of heart attacks and strokes in adults
D) as the best source of fever reduction in children
E) as the best source of pain relief in adult migraine headache sufferers
Answer: C Page: 321 Difficulty: moderate
2. Which of the following provides learning experiences that affect the type of lifestyle people seek and the products they consume?
A) culture
B) family
C) friends
D) mass media
E) all of the above
Answer: E Page: 322 Difficulty: easy
3. Any change in the content or organization of long-term memory or behavior is known as _____.
A) marketing
B) learning
C) cognition
D) information processing
E) repositioning
Answer: B Page: 322 Difficulty: easy
4. A series of activities by which stimuli are perceived, transformed into information, and stored is called _____.
A) marketing
B) interpretation
C) learning
D) information processing
E) positioning
Answer: D Page: 322 Difficulty: moderate
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5. _____ is the total accumulation of prior learning experiences.
A) Memory
B) Brand image
C) Brand equity
D) Information processing
E) Positioning
Answer: A Page: 323 Difficulty: easy
6. Which of the following are the two interrelated components of memory?
A) primary and secondary memory
B) conditioned and unconditioned memory
C) operant and classical memory
D) short-term and long-term memory
E) implied and explicit memory
Answer: D Page: 323 Difficulty: moderate
7. Which component of memory is also referred to as working memory and is that portion of total memory that is currently activated or in use?
A) short-term memory
B) long-term memory
C) primary memory
D) secondary memory
E) transient memory
Answer: A Page: 323 Difficulty: moderate
8. Which portion of total memory is devoted to permanent information storage?
A) short-term memory
B) long-term memory
C) primary memory
D) secondary memory
E) established memory
Answer: B Page: 323 Difficulty: moderate
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9. Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding short-term memory (STM)?
A) STM is short-lived.
B) STM has limited capacity.
C) STM is a static structure.
D) Elaborative activities occur in STM
E) STM is also called working memory.
Answer: C Page: 323-324 Difficulty: moderate
10. Which of the following refers to the continual repetition of a piece of information in order to hold it in current memory for use in problem solving or transferal to long-term memory?
A) schema
B) scripts
C) imagery
D) maintenance rehearsal
E) chunking
Answer: D Page: 323 Difficulty: moderate
11. Nick looked up a phone number in the telephone directory, and instead of writing it down, he kept repeating it to himself over and over until he could punch the numbers and make the call. Which of the following describes what Nick was doing?
A) developing a schema
B) developing a script
C) employing imagery
D) maintenance rehearsal
E) chunking information
Answer: D Page: 323 Difficulty: moderate
12. The capacity of STM is thought to be in the range of _____ bits of information.
A) 1 to 2
B) 3 to 5
C) 5 to 9
D) 10 to 14
E) 15 to 20
Answer: C Page: 323 Difficulty: hard
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13. Organizing individual items into groups of related items that can be processed as a single unit is called _____.
A) chunking
B) maintenance rehearsal
C) zipping
D) minimizing
E) conditioning
Answer: A Page: 323 Difficulty: moderate
14. Robert was studying for an exam and organized lists of things into words that he could remember. For example, he needed to know five creative advertising strategies, and used the first letter of each strategy to form the acronym, AIIEE. He knew what word each letter stood for and then only had to remember this acronym for the exam. What is Robert doing?
A) chunking
B) maintenance rehearsal
C) zipping
D) minimizing
E) conditioning
Answer: A Page: 323 Difficulty: moderate
15. Using the toll-free number 1-800-FLOWERS to help consumers remember the phone number is an example of _____.
A) chunking
B) maintenance rehearsal
C) zipping
D) minimizing
E) conditioning
Answer: A Page: 323 Difficulty: moderate
16. Which group of consumers are better able to chunk product information?
A) younger consumers
B) older consumers
C) males
D) females
E) product experts
Answer: E Page: 324 Difficulty: easy
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17. _____ are(is) the use of previously stored experiences, values, attitudes, beliefs, and feelings to interpret and evaluate information in working memory as well as to add relevant previously stored information.
A) Maintenance rehearsal
B) Chunking
C) Elaborative activities
D) Conceptualization
E) Conditioning
Answer: C Page: 324 Difficulty: moderate
18. A television commercial for Senseo brand of coffee maker that can make coffee similar to what consumers purchase at coffee shops (e.g., Starbucks) encourages viewers to remember the experience of drinking their favorite coffee drinks at these types of shops. This coffee maker allows consumers to experience that sensation at home. What is this marketer trying to encourage?
A) maintenance rehearsal
B) chunking
C) elaborative activities
D) conceptualization
E) conditioning
Answer: C Page: 324 Difficulty: hard
19. Which of the following are abstractions of reality that capture the meaning of an item in terms of other concepts?
A) imagery
B) concepts
C) episodes
D) semantics
E) schema
Answer: B Page: 325 Difficulty: hard
20. Which type of processing involves the recall and mental manipulation of sensory images, including sight, smell, taste, and tactile (touch) sensations?
A) imagery processing
B) mental processing
C) episodic processing
D) transient processing
E) conditioned processing
Answer: A Page: 325 Difficulty: moderate
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21. Which type of memory is viewed as an unlimited, permanent storage that can store numerous types of information such as concepts, decision rules, processes, affective (emotional) states, and so forth?
A) short-term memory
B) long-term memory
C) primary memory
D) secondary memory
E) episodic memory
Answer: B Page: 325 Difficulty: easy
22. The basic knowledge and feelings an individuals has about a concept is known as _____.
A) episodic memory
B) primary memory
C) accessible memory
D) semantic memory
E) conditioned memory
Answer: D Page: 325 Difficulty: moderate
23. When asked what the concept “New Year's” meant to Holly, she mentioned the following: party, holiday, new beginning, football, fun, resolution, and winter. Holly's basic knowledge and feelings she has about this concept comprises her _____.
A) episodic memory
B) primary memory
C) accessible memory
D) semantic memory
E) conditioned memory
Answer: D Page: 325 Difficulty: moderate
24. The memory of a sequence of events in which a person participated is called _____.
A) episodic memory
B) primary memory
C) accessible memory
D) semantic memory
E) conditioned memory
Answer: A Page: 325 Difficulty: moderate
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25. Shirley and Bud have been married for almost 50 years, but Shirley can remember their wedding day so clearly. She remembers how happy she felt that day and how wonderful it was to celebrate their marriage with all of their family and friends. She even remembers walking down the aisle, seeing her future husband waiting for her, and her father kissing her as her placed her hand in Bud's. Which type of memory does this represent?
A) episodic memory
B) primary memory
C) accessible memory
D) semantic memory
E) conditioned memory
Answer: A Page: 325 Difficulty: moderate
26. What are two important long-term memory structures?
A) primary and secondary
B) schema and scripts
C) semantic and conceptual
D) conceptual and imagery
E) iconic and vicarious
Answer: B Page: 325 Difficulty: moderate
27. Which type of memory structure is a complex web of associations?
A) schema
B) image
C) script
D) iconic
E) conceptual
Answer: A Page: 325 Difficulty: moderate
28. Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding schemas?
A) A schema is also known as a knowledge structure.
B) Concepts, events, and feelings are stored in nodes within memory.
C) Associative links vary in terms of how strongly and how directly they are associated with a node.
D) Once an associative link is formed, it is permanent.
E) Marketers expend substantial effort to influence the schema consumers have for their brands.
Answer: D Page: 325-327 Difficulty: hard
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29. Brands in the schematic memory that come to mind (are recalled) for a specific problem or situation are known as the _____.
A) preferred set
B) evoked set
C) priority set
D) accessible set
E) primary set
Answer: B Page: 327 Difficulty: moderate
30. Leslie was participating in a market research study, and she was asked to list all of the brands of computer printers that come to her mind. She listed HP, Epson, and Lexmark. These brands represent Leslie's _____.
A) preferred set
B) evoked set
C) priority set
D) accessible set
E) primary set
Answer: B Page: 327 Difficulty: moderate
31. Memory of how an action should occur is a special type of schema known as a(n) _____.
A) directive
B) episode
C) concept
D) operant
E) script
Answer: E Page: 327 Difficulty: moderate
32. Maria was raised as a Catholic, but she has not been attending church regularly since she moved out of her parents' home into her own apartment. However, when she does attend mass, she remembers the sequence of events and what she must do (e.g., sit, kneel, stand, which prayer to say, etc.). Her memory of how an action sequence should occur is known as a(n) _____.
A) directive
B) episode
C) concept
D) operant
E) script
Answer: E Page: 327 Difficulty: moderate
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33. The likelihood and ease with which information can be recalled from long-term memory is termed _____.
A) retrieval
B) elaboration
C) maintenance
D) accessibility
E) learning
Answer: D Page: 327 Difficulty: moderate
34. How can accessibility of information stored in long-term memory be enhanced?
A) repetition
B) rehearsal
C) elaboration
D) a and b
E) a, b, and c
Answer: E Page: 327 Difficulty: moderate
35. The accessibility effect for brands is called _____.
A) episodic awareness
B) conceptual awareness
C) top-of-mind awareness
D) operant learning
E) conditioned response
Answer: C Page: 327 Difficulty: moderate
36. Accessibility is related to which of the following?
A) strength of incoming linkages
B) number of incoming linkages
C) strength of links to nodes
D) directness of links to nodes
E) all of the above
Answer: E Page: 327 Difficulty: easy
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37. Which type of memory is characterized by the conscious recollection of an exposure event?
A) explicit memory
B) schematic memory
C) implicit memory
D) constructed memory
E) concrete memory
Answer: A Page: 328 Difficulty: moderate
38. Which type of memory involves the nonconscious retrieval of previously encountered stimuli?
A) explicit memory
B) schematic memory
C) implicit memory
D) constructed memory
E) concrete memory
Answer: C Page: 328 Difficulty: moderate
39. A market researcher asked Carl about his recollection of a specific exposure event, such as seeing an advertisement, or experience, such as driving or riding in an Acura automobile, which was the brand the researcher was interested in. While Carl could not recall a specific ad and has never traveled in an Acura, he seemed to “know” quite a bit about this brand. Carl described the brand as “reliable,” “high-performance,” “luxury,” and “expensive.” Which type of memory does this represent?
A) explicit memory
B) implicit memory
C) scripted memory
D) suppressed memory
E) subliminal memory
Answer: B Page: 328 Difficulty: moderate
40. Which type of learning situation is one in which the consumer is motivated to process or learn the material?
A) explicit learning
B) implicit learning
C) primary learning
D) low-involvement learning
E) high-involvement learning
Answer: E Page: 329 Difficulty: moderate
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41. Pat is purchasing new tires for his car. Since he expected to spend $400 or more for these tires, he started researching on the Internet. He spent several days learning about this product and studied several consumer magazines (e.g., Consumer Reports). He decided to purchase Yokohama tires because they were rated the best tire value. Which type of learning situation does this illustrate?
A) explicit learning
B) implicit learning
C) primary learning
D) low-involvement learning
E) high-involvement learning
Answer: E Page: 329 Difficulty: moderate
42. In which type of learning situation does the consumer have little or no motivation to process or learn the material?
A) explicit learning
B) implicit learning
C) primary learning
D) low-involvement learning
E) high-involvement learning
Answer: D Page: 329 Difficulty: moderate
43. Kay was watching American Idol on television when a commercial for toilet tissue came on. She was not motivated at all to process the information provided in the ad. Which type of learning situation does this represent?
A) explicit learning
B) implicit learning
C) primary learning
D) low-involvement learning
E) high-involvement learning
Answer: D Page: 329 Difficulty: moderate
44. Which of the following is the primary determinant of how material is learned?
A) education level
B) age
C) level of involvement
D) occupation
E) gender
Answer: C Page: 330 Difficulty: moderate
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45. High-involvement learning often involves _____.
A) classical conditioning
B) analytical reasoning
C) iconic rote learning
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: B Page: 330 Difficulty: moderate
46. High-involvement learning often involves _____.
A) classical conditioning
B) iconic rote learning
C) operant conditioning
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: C Page: 330 Difficulty: hard
47. Low-involvement learning often involves _____.
A) classical conditioning
B) iconic rote learning
C) modeling
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D Page: 330 Difficulty: hard
48. Which of the following is NOT a specific learning theory?
A) schematic
B) operant
C) iconic rote
D) vicarious/modeling
E) reasoning/analogy
Answer: A Page: 330 Difficulty: moderate
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49. Which of the following involves presenting two stimuli in close proximity so that eventually the two are perceived to be related or associated?
A) pairing
B) combining
C) conditioning
D) operating
E) shaping
Answer: C Page: 330-331 Difficulty: moderate
50. What are the two basic forms of conditioned learning?
A) classical and operant
B) classical and iconic
C) iconic rote and modeling
D) analogy and metaphor
E) positive and negative
Answer: A Page: 331 Difficulty: moderate
51. _____ attempts to create an association between a stimulus (e.g., brand name) and some response (e.g., behavior or feeling).
A) Analogous conditioning
B) Iconic rote conditioning
C) Classical conditioning
D) Modeled conditioning
E) Vicarious conditioning
Answer: C Page: 331 Difficulty: moderate
52. _____ attempts to create an association between a response (e.g., buying a brand) and some outcome (e.g., satisfaction) that serves to reinforce the response.
A) Operant conditioning
B) Iconic rote conditioning
C) Classical conditioning
D) Modeled conditioning
E) Vicarious conditioning
Answer: A Page: 331 Difficulty: moderate
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53. Coca-Cola does not advertise during the evening news because the marketer does not want the often negative information reported on the news to create a negative feeling toward the brand. Which type of learning creates an association between the brand and some response?
A) classical conditioning
B) operant conditioning
C) iconic learning
D) vicarious learning
E) reinforced learning
Answer: A Page: 331 Difficulty: moderate
54. The more often a response is reinforced, the more likely it will be repeated in the future as consumers learn that the response is associated with a positive outcome is the basic premise of which type of learning?
A) classical conditioning
B) operant conditioning
C) iconic learning
D) vicarious learning
E) reinforced learning
Answer: B Page: 332 Difficulty: moderate
55. Which type of conditioning requires that consumers first engage in a deliberate behavior (i.e., trying the product) and come to understand its power in predicting positive outcomes that serve as reinforcement?
A) classical conditioning
B) operant conditioning
C) iconic conditioning
D) vicarious conditioning
E) reinforced conditioning
Answer: B Page: 332 Difficulty: moderate
56. The process of encouraging partial responses leading to the final desired response is known as _____.
A) step learning
B) staging
C) stepping
D) shaping
E) modeling
Answer: D Page: 332 Difficulty: moderate
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57. Procter & Gamble, the maker of Crest brand toothpaste, has modified this brand to include whiteners. To encourage consumers to adopt this brand, P&G gave away free samples along with a high value coupon on the purchase of a tube. The hope was that consumers would try the brand, purchase it at a discount, and finally buy it at full price. This is an example of _____.
A) step learning
B) staging
C) stepping
D) shaping
E) modeling
Answer: D Page: 332 Difficulty: moderate
58. Which type of learning encompasses all the mental activities of humans as they work to solve problems or cope with situations?
A) conditioning
B) cognitive learning
C) affective learning
D) shaping
E) conscious learning
Answer: B Page: 334 Difficulty: moderate
59. Which of the following is NOT a type of cognitive learning?
A) iconic rote
B) vicarious
C) reasoning/analogy
D) operant
E) all of the above are types of cognitive learning
Answer: D Page: 334-335 Difficulty: hard
60. Learning a concept or the association between two or more concepts in the absence of conditioning is known as _____.
A) operant learning
B) iconic rote learning
C) vicarious learning
D) modeling
E) analytical reasoning
Answer: B Page: 334 Difficulty: moderate
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61. Thomas is studying for vocabulary exam by merely repeating the words and their definitions over and over. Which type of cognitive learning is this?
A) operant learning
B) vicarious learning
C) modeling
D) analytical reasoning
E) iconic rote learning
Answer: E Page: 334 Difficulty: moderate
62. When consumers do not directly experience a reward or punishment to learn but instead observe the outcomes of others' behaviors and adjust their own accordingly, which type of learning has occurred?
A) operant learning
B) vicarious learning
C) shaping
D) analytical reasoning
E) iconic rote learning
Answer: B Page: 334 Difficulty: moderate
63. The most complex form of cognitive learning is _____.
A) operant learning
B) vicarious learning
C) iconic rote learning
D) analytical reasoning
E) modeling
Answer: D Page: 335 Difficulty: moderate
64. Which type of reasoning allows consumers to use an existing knowledge base to understand a new situation or object?
A) operant reasoning
B) analogical reasoning
C) cognitive reasoning
D) affective reasoning
E) conscious reasoning
Answer: B Page: 335 Difficulty: moderate
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65. _____ refers to the process of learning to respond differently to similar but distinct stimuli.
A) Stimulus generalization
B) Stimulus reasoning
C) Stimulus discrimination
D) Stimulus contrasting
E) Stimulus identification
Answer: C Page: 336 Difficulty: easy
66. _____ occurs when a response to one stimulus is elicited by a similar but distinct stimulus.
A) Stimulus generalization
B) Stimulus reasoning
C) Stimulus discrimination
D) Stimulus contrasting
E) Stimulus identification
Answer: A Page: 336 Difficulty: moderate
67. Many store brands use packaging and labeling that is similar to the more expensive national brand. The hope is that the look-alike package will elicit a similar response in consumers that encourages them to purchase the cheaper store brand. This is an example of _____.
A) stimulus discrimination
B) stimulus generalization
C) stimulus confusion
D) stimulus similarity
E) stimulus deception
Answer: B Page: 336 Difficulty: moderate
68. In conditioned learning, forgetting is often referred to as _____.
A) decay
B) deconditioning
C) extinction
D) failure
E) retrieval failure
Answer: C Page: 337 Difficulty: moderate
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69. Which of the following enhances the strength of learning?
A) importance
B) message involvement
C) mood
D) repetition
E) all of the above
Answer: E Page: 338 Difficulty: easy
70. Donald has just learned that he has Type II diabetes, so he wants to learn as much as he can to manage his health. He reads health magazines, visits health-related Web sites, and reads product nutrition and ingredient information on packages. Donald's strength of learning is most likely to be strong due to which factor that affects the strength of learning?
A) mood
B) punishment
C) importance
D) repetition
E) dual coding
Answer: C Page: 339 Difficulty: moderate
71. Ads that encourage consumers to remember past personal experiences and use language such as “you” and “your” in the copy are using the strategy of _____ to enhance message involvement.
A) importance
B) personalization
C) dual coding
D) mood enhancement
E) self-referencing
Answer: E Page: 339 Difficulty: moderate
72. Anything that increases the likelihood that a given response will be repeated in the future is considered _____.
A) punishment
B) a reward
C) reinforcement
D) a conditioned stimulus
E) an operant
Answer: C Page: 340 Difficulty: moderate
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73. A local car dealership advertises quite frequently on local broadcast and cable television, and it seems as though the man in the ad is always yelling for consumers to “Come on down, you'll be glad you did!” This car dealership uses the same type of ad over and over even though the specific information changes, and consumers tend to shut out the message, evaluate it negatively, or disregard it. John is so sick of these ads that he instantly changes the channel when one comes on. This is an example of _____.
A) zipping
B) advertising wearout
C) interference
D) pulsing
E) poor positioning
Answer: B Page: 342 Difficulty: moderate
74. Sometimes consumers have difficulty retrieving a specific piece of information because other related information in memory gets in the way, which is an effect referred to as _____.
A) noise
B) echoic memory
C) interference
D) clutter
E) memory failure
Answer: C Page: 344 Difficulty: moderate
75. Which of the following is a strategy to reduce competitive interference?
A) create a semantic memory of a brand
B) create a episodic memory of a brand
C) use pulsing
D) provide external retrieval cues
E) provide an incentive for trial
Answer: D Page: 345 Difficulty: moderate
76. _____ refers to the schematic memory of a brand.
A) Brand image
B) Brand equity
C) Brand leverage
D) Brand position
E) Brand benefit
Answer: A Page: 346 Difficulty: moderate
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77. Many consumers associate Mercedes automobiles with status, luxury, quality engineering, and high price. This is an example of Mercedes' _____.
A) brand equity
B) brand image
C) brand leverage
D) brand position
E) brand identity
Answer: B Page: 346 Difficulty: moderate
78. The decision by a marketer to try to achieve a defined brand image relative to competition within a market segment is called _____.
A) product extension
B) brand extension
C) brand leveraging
D) product positioning
E) product equity
Answer: D Page: 347 Difficulty: moderate
79. Which of the following offers marketing managers a useful technique for measuring and developing a product's position by taking consumers' perceptions of how similar various brands or products are to each other and relates these perceptions to product attributes?
A) regression analysis
B) conjoint analysis
C) analytical mapping
D) perceptual mapping
E) laddering
Answer: D Page: 349 Difficulty: moderate
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80. Vanity Fair, the makers of Lee jeans, learned from market research that young men perceived the brand as for women. As a result, they developed an advertising campaign targeted to young men and used Buddy Lee, which is a little doll in dungarees that is portrayed as “cool,” to alter this market's perception of this brand. Vanity Fair's deliberate decision to significantly alter the way the market views its brand is an example of _____.
A) product positioning
B) product repositioning
C) brand extension
D) brand leveraging
E) brand revival
Answer: B Page: 350 Difficulty: moderate
81. The value consumers assign to a brand above and beyond the functional characteristics of the product is known as _____.
A) brand solvency
B) brand liquidation
C) brand image
D) brand equity
E) brand leverage
Answer: D Page: 351 Difficulty: moderate
82. When Honda introduced its Odyssey mini-van, its advertising merely claimed, “It's the Honda of mini-vans.” This is an example of _____.
A) brand leverage
B) brand generalization
C) brand discrimination
D) brand substitute
E) brand complement
Answer: A Page: 351 Difficulty: moderate

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