Question-   Human Right to Internet Access.





INTRODUCTION                                                                                                             .                                                                                                               

Human is a social entity. We need some communication channels for socializing.  Today, When we consider human needs in terms of communication, Both the information  and information sources are of great importance. The technology is improving fastly in our  age. One of the improving technology fields is also the Internet. What is the Internet? We can say that  the Internet means  the  global system  of  interconnected  computer  and   electronic device networks by using satellite technology.

Through this network technology, Internet users can reach to services as the world wide web, electronic mail, telephony and file sharing. When we  examine the historical begins of the  Internet, we can see that It has started in the 1960s. But arguable foundations of the web as  social networks were laid down by British scientist Tim Berners Lee in 1989; also the social  networks on the Internet have been begun popular by the means. Today, the Internet is being  used intensively in our all life parts. So all our data and accesses as personal pieces of  information, current locations, finance pieces of information and also digital identities are  undefended.Because of these reasons, human rights for the Internet are fundamental. There are some ideasfor human rights in terms of the Internet. We will examine a few from these ideas below.





IDEAS                                                                                                                           .

Merten Reglitz (2020), in his study; While governments are trying to set the laws of the game in a rapidly evolving digital environment, they often pursue policy, legislation and governance goals, away from individuals' perspectives, rights or needs. He argues that laws developed without input from various stakeholders, including voices from civil society, put particularly marginalized populations at risk of grave human rights violations. (Reglitz, 2020).

For example, some government, especially, developing countries, are keeping all data  which are coming from internet service providers. And also law enforcement reaches to these  data. Besides, they put some barriers to get social platforms like Youtube, tweeter and some websites etc. These kinds of laws which are created by the governments, criminalize the usage  of human rights. These also block freedom of expression. Unfortunately,  these application of  laws undermines democratization.

There are some strategies and ways to prevent human rights from using the Internet by  governments. When we examine these processes, we see the following results;

According to many opinions; Opposition parties, non-governmental organizations and  foreign capital investments within the countries have a duty against human rights violations by  governments over the Internet.

            According to (Mihr, 2017). Cyber Justice: Human Rights and Good Governance for the Internet. Springer.);Advocates should also encourage the private sector to pressure governments with whom they work to respect the right to the Internet by  threatening to withdraw their investments. To have types of equipment, tools, resources and  capabilities are of great importance to work these strategies in terms of the human rights  community. The early stimulative system should be improved and known when the government  will put the block to internet reach in order to provide movement of theinternational community  to condemn the behaviour. Opposition parties should have the right strategies and their digital  security in order to escape government restrictions. Through these strategies, they can easily  warn to international communities. Policy advocates must raise their voices aboutrestrictions  on Internet access and online surveillance and harassment, and connect with keystakeholders—foreign embassies, telecommunications companies, Internet service providers, and other decision-makers—in order to harness their collective influence over repressive governments. “Mihr, A. (2017). Cyber Justice: Human Rights and Good Governance for the Internet. Springer.

When we examine another idea of (Sutherland, 2018), the Internet laws Which are  established should content not only freedom of expression and human right, but also  social, economic and cultural rights. These kinds of policies should push the people to use their  citizenship and to be a participant in the governance of the Internet. And also the politics should  provide the private sector to be more responsible in terms of  The Internet structure.

“Sutherland, E. (2018). The Internet and Human Rights: Access, censorship, shutdowns, and surveillance.”

Another idea from(Moyn, 2018)is,the important thing is to be able to establish a  human rights-based  Internet law than to the markets. Because this reason, it is not allowed to  advocate for moderation with respect to privacy or any other right. It is possible that there are  limitations to protect human rights in terms of  other essentially  private  interests, when they  are necessary to ensure the realization of human right “Moyn, S. ,2018. Not enough: Human rights in an unequal world. Harvard University Press.”

Another opinion put forward appears in the study of  (Nord et al., 2019)Content of human rights should base on sensitive to Internet technology and include all rights. And also it is not compromised from freedom of expression and right to privacy. Content  of human rights should base on sensitive to Internet technology and include all rights. And also  it is not compromised from freedom of expression and right to privacy. But also there are potential risks to the realization of a wide range of civil and political rights as well as social,economic and cultural ones. When we think about the widening gap between the people having an internet connection and not, all rights must be included for them as well. By the way, It should be examined the effect of the Internet on the approach based on human rights. When  we consider the global economy, It should not be caused by the erosion of human right in terms  of market base. The laws for internet market should be designed as well.“Nord, J. H., Koohang, A., & Paliszkiewicz, J. (2019). The Internet of Things: Review and theoretical framework. Expert Systems with Applications, 133, 97-108.”

According to the  author(Morhardt, 2010); “Most of the governments don't have the technical ability to violate human rights in terms of Internet. Because of this reason, especially, the repressive governments can use many computer and telecommunication business for these  purposes. It can be seen these kinds of applications in developing countries as African countries, middle east countries. The balance can be provided between the  business which is provided Internet service and the governments in terms of protection of human rights by laws that involved international community.”

“Morhardt, J. E. (2010). Corporate social responsibility and sustainability reporting on the Internet. Business strategy and the environment, 19(7), 436-452.”



When we examine all ideas above, we can see the agreement between all opinions. Using the Internet are getting larger in worldwide.The people who also live in developing  countries are able to reach this technology. And also,It is bringing some problems with them. We can see some human right breaches in terms of the Internet user in these countries. It can  be said Mena and Latin America countries in this context. It can be seen the impact of the Internet increasingly larger role in social life. A clear human rights policy is of great necessity  at this point.While this policy is preparing, It should not be limited to a local and partial  approach of only certain fundamental rights that favours market operation, silences the state's role, and omits the challenges of effective global Internet governance. An Internet policy based on human rights should be sustainable in terms of including civil and political rights, as much as social, economic, and cultural rights, including the right to development. These kinds of  policies need to be powered effectively for using of citizenship in the digital environment, to  be able to participate in Internet governance, to establish clear responsibilities for private sector  actors and to give preference to human rights over market demands.

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