Question-   Prevent the exploitation of the Environment in War and Armed Conflict


Document 1

Name: Prevent the exploitation of the Environment in War and Armed Conflict

Definition: Military activities has important environmental implications. In addition to the destruction of socio-environment, the military activity produces large quantities of greenhouse gases (which lead to rising temperatures), contamination and loss of biodiversity, among other effects on the environment.

Explanation: The environment has a major effects on the lives and lifestyle of people and animals, who are already devastated by poverty and violence and loss, and is one of the largest victims of war The UNEP assesses the exploitation of natural resources in at least 40 per cent of all hostilities in the previous 60 years. The International Day to Prevent Environmental Exploitation in Wars and Army Conflict is on November 6. It is extremely important for the United Nations to ensure that environmental action is part of peacekeeping operations, mediation and national reconciliation efforts - because peace will not last if it's natural Resources and environment are devastated that maintain living conditions.  Almost 1.5 billion humans reside in war zones and unstable nations, more than 20 % of the global population. War and violent conflict are a danger on our globe for mankind and other living things. It involves too many lives and species. Years of violent conflicts have caused a huge depletion of soil resources in nations such as Afghanistan, Colombia or Iraq. We saw astonishing forest loss in Afghanistan alone, reaching 95% in certain regions. In the DR Congo and Horn Of Africa the herds of Elephant were destroyed while the Siverskyi Propagate River in the Ukraine were further affected by conflict-related pollution. In Gaza, Yemen, or anywhere else water facilities have been destroyed, with public healthcare and ecological threats ranging from freshwater pools to sewage drainage system and pumping stations to water treatment plant. That’s why UN celebrates 6 November as international Day for Preventing Exploitation of the Environment in War and Armed Conflict.





Document 2

Name: Role ofMuslin (hand-woven cotton fabric fit for emperors)in EastIndian textile industry before European invasion

Definition: Muslin was the name of a mythical cotton textile that was appropriate for rulers in the past. Muslin from Dacca was the greatest shipping place on the world's distant corners and this industry were also destroyed by European invaders.

Explanation: "MUSLIN" THE WORD is famous in Mosul, Iraq, based on an account of the trading of silk by Marco Polo. (The term Bengali is Mul Mul)  A more current perspective is that of Susan Greene, the fashion researcher who writes that the French word for "foam" came from mocha in the eighteenth century.

Today Muslin means nearly any delicate, wispy, predominantly cheap cotton textile. The term lost all link with the woven tissue, previously solely made in Bengal. Cotton was initially utilized by old civilizations on the Indian subcontinent, the historian Fernand Braudel said, while the technique of spinning was directly traced to many before ages. This is probably why antiquity was able to make cotton textiles. This is the beginning. Their volume grew in the middle Ages with expansion in the Indian Ocean's "Maritime Silk Road," becoming one of the major export commodities for the Roman Empire.

Bengal was in the leads from the very beginning. In three regions of Gujarat, on the Southern Shore and in Bengal, "this was the East Coast and particularly the Ganges Valley [which] gave the most beautiful characteristics," as the textile archaeologists John and Felicity Wild said.

Since the seventh century, when substantial numbers of cotton textiles started to approach Basra, Bagdad and Makkah through passengers from the Hajy, Arab traders came into dominance of the Industry's commerce in the Indian Ocean. In the east, Java, China and Ibn Battuta predicted that it will be highly sought in the beginning of the 14th Century. He reported that 100 pieces, each of five different sorts of fabric, were delivered by Delhi Sultan Muhammad ibn Tughluq to the Emperor of the Yuan in China: Ibn Battuta named them Bayrami, Salahiyyya, Shrinbaf and Shanbaf, four from Bengal.

While all travelers to the region were waxing poetic with respect to Bengal's fine cotton cloth, it was the Roman author Petronius who established, at Satyricon, a mainly screed textile trope: "Thy bride could also clothe herself with a jacket of the wind, openly knocked out under her muslin's clouds."

Document 3

Title:Summary of the Cambodia Campaign: The Forestry Reform Process

Definition:To save the forests in Cambodia due to civil war because timber was considered and used  as funds generator in civilian war by civilian rabbles then after peace keeping program implementation Cambodian state took serious steps to save forests and natural land scape called the forestry reforms.

Details: AsThe civil war from 1970 to 1975, the Khmer Rouge regime from 1975 to 1979, and the Cambodia-Vietnam War from 1978 to 1979 virtually destroyed Cambodia’s economy. It has directly impact onthe forestry of Cambodia is 9.4 million hectares or 54% of the overall area of 18.1 million hectares. (Cambodia's entire surface area). The Forestry Act 2002 specifies that all (plant and natural) forests within the Kingdom of Cambodia are managed, used, harvested, conserved and developed. Even theKhmer Rouge regime used timber as main financial resource for war.

Here you may find information on indices of management and accountability.

Connections and organs in the field of forest concerns in Cambodia, numerous organizations in business, public participation and government organizations are working.

Cambodia is one of the most susceptible nations in terms of repercussions on climate change, for example flooding. Risk factors of poor returns and even famine and a bigger incident of plagues and illnesses are the unfavorable repercussions of global warming. So, the Royal Government of Cambodia (RGC) has halted the lease of all forest operations since 2001 and developed an internationally-standard forest management plan. There was a mistake. This requires the conversion of 532,615 hectares of non-forest land to forest land.

Global Witness plans to maintain its hitherto autonomous surveillance operations in Cambodia and these activities are merged into the Cambodia Forests Global Witness Campaign, which has existed since 1995. 

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