PRODUCE CAKES, PASTERIES AND BREADS
Answer:-1 1. Pastry Scrapers and horns:-To minimize waste and helps to work hygienically.
2. Pallete knives, straight and cranked spatulas:-To assist with the removal of pastry and the finishing of cakes.
3. Piping bags and wide variety of nozzles:-To allow for piping of softer mixtures and finishing of cream-based desserts and garnishes with different shapes and finishes.
4. Cake rings and Spring moulds:-They are used for cakes and sponges.
5. Bread tins in many Shapes:-To assist in bread making.
6. Tarlet and barquette moulds and flan rings:-They are used short paste.
7.Fluted moulds and dariole moulds:- They are used for yeast pastes.
8.Cornet moulds:-They are used for pastry horns.
9.Cutters moulds:- They are used for wide variety of pasteries from fleurons to shortbread biscuits.
10.Rolling pins:- It helps in even thickness, ranging from metal to wood , marble and plastic.
Answer:- 2 Safety:-the use of blender for short paste can be dangerous, for this proper training is necessary.
Appropriateness:-A rolling pin is used for small amount of short paste, while a sheeter is used for a large batch of puff paste.
Ease of use:-For a restaurant a normal oven will be good, bakers oven allows for consistency and speed of production for larger amounts.
Reducing Wastage:-Reusing pastry offcuts like puff paste for sausage rolls or fleurons.
Answer:- 31. Cleanliness is required to prevent cross-contamination.
2. Consider WHS (work health and safety) to prevent any injury or death. Proper training needed for correctly operating the equipment to prevent the injury and deaths. Proper instructions sheets for the use of the equipment should be there.
3. Hygiene is important, for this proper cleaning and sanitation during usage and or when changing food items.
4. Faulted and malfunctioned equipments should be repaired or removed from the operations.
5. All electrical equipments to be stored should be away from moisture to prevent the risk of electrocution.
Answer:- 4 Basic ingredients:-Flour, fat, sugar, salt and water etc are the basic ingredients. The ratio basic ingredients used in baking influence the appearance and taste of the finished products.
Answer:- 5Accuracy in the weighing, execution of the product, and preheating of the oven to the required temperature.
Answer:- 61. Convection:- Air is heated in the oven, this affect the changes in the final product.
Conduction:- it is heating an iron or pan is utilized in waffies and crepes and also some flat bread verities.
Radiation:-It is heat from a direct source for items such as grilled bread types and for flashing or glazing of items such as crème brulee.
Answer:- 1.Yeast fermentation changes the gluten, making it soft and more extensible/elastic , thus allowing the dough to be stretched more.
Answer:- 2They add to the flavors, aerate the paste or dough and tenderize and enhance the texture.
Answer:-3 The function of eggs
1. The water content of eggs will help to bind the dry ingredients together.
2. The protein content of eggs will set during baking, helping to provide structure in the products.
3. Eggs improve the crust color.
4. The color of eggs improves crumb color.
Answer:- 4This is also called leavening. The yeast uses glucose contained within the flour to bud and multiply during this process. Carbon dioxide is released forming the bubbles within the dough, making it rise.
Chemical formula: Sugar + Yeast→ Carbon Dioxide + Ethanol (Anaerobic)
To provide strength and structure
Have to be carried by flour and eggs
Lighten the texture
Tighten, compact the texture
Liquid – water, milk, liqueurs
Baking powder, yeast
Answer:- 11Eggs are whisked they trap air bubbles which will aerate the products.
2. The water content of eggs will help to bind the dry ingredients together.
3. The protein content of eggs will set during baking, helping to provide structure in the product.
4. Eggs improve the crust color.
5. The emulsification of eggs will improve the storage qualities of cake and sponge products.
6. The color of eggs improves the crumb color.
Answer:- 2Fresh yeast:- it should be stored in the fridge and will last approximately weeks. Cream yeast is used in large scale baking.
Cream yeast:-It comes in a creamy liquid made with a moisture content of 90%.
Dried and instant yeast:-It is used in baking, instant yeast is concentrated quite porous.
Food-in the form of sugar and starch
Moisture-Water, milk, or other liquids
Answer:- 4 1.The small number of ingredients required and limited shelf life of the products
2.The labor cost of production and requirement for mass production
3.The saving of convenience products is time
Answer:- 51. Historical Data
2. Special functions
3. Number of bookings
Answer:-6 Seasonality:-To store the ingredients that are seasonal ie for limited time period in a year.
Price:-It may be cheaper to buy certain fruits and vegetables at specific times of the year.
Infrastructure:-Storage space and preparation space can impact on possible processes such as bread, cake and pastry production.
Equipment available:-Eg. Specialized cooking equipment like waffle makers and dough breakers are needed.
Quality standards:-Eg. Differences in menus and expectations between an aged hostel, café, restaurant and 5 star hotel or cruise ship.
Service requirements:-Eg. Self service, set menu a la carte or buffer style.
Stock rotation principles:-Such as FIFO (first-in-first-out) are important to ensure that the oldest product is used up first.
Answer:-7Gross Profit:- Sales-cost of goods sold
Operating profit:-Sales-cost of goods sold-Operating costs, Expenses Before Interest and Tax (EBIT)
Net Profit:-Sales-Total costs including tax
Answer:- 11. Low fat alternatives:- Yoghurt, buttermilk, skimmilk and goat ‘s milk
2. Sweeteners:- Fresh fruits
3. Increased dietary fibre:-Pumpernickel, sourdough bread , homemade and other artisan bread varieties
4. Coeliac disease and allergies:-Cornflour, wheat, barley
Answer :- 2. The production methods for short pastes are:
1. Rub in method:-is used to achieve the firm pastry bases with greater density which helps retain the shape e.g for a quicke or pie base.
2. Creaming method:-is used to produce a light and airy product. In the pastry method the fat and sugar are creamed until smooth.
3. Hot water method:- is used for pies or as a lining paste for pat’e en croute. Boil the water and lard and then add to flour and salt. Work quickly into the paste and use while hot. It has a firmer texture and will contain pie ingredients within a mould.
1 egg for – 80gsugar
Pate a Foncer (sweet)
1 egg for – 80g sugar
1 egg for – 80g sugar
Answer:- 4.Balance of top and bottom heat and should be baked in the middle of oven.
Answer:- 51. Bakewell tart
2. Lemon and Mandarin Tartlets
3. Apricot and Frangipane flan
4. Baked chocolate and vanilla cheesecake
5. Berry and mango tartlet
6. Linzer torte
Answer:-1 1.Flans and tarts with custard fillings are topped with fresh or canned fruit and glazed with clear gel. Ganache and nut combined with chocolate flavor.
2. Shell is prebaked and then filled with a custard and various other ingredients like citrus tart and finished at lower temperature.
3. Tarts and tartlets are applied to products that are finished and baked in one go. Preparation is slightly different ie they are baked in deeper moulds. Flans like French apple flan can be baked with the filling already in the raw shell without the need for blind baking. Examples are Bakewell tarts and custard tarts.
Answer:- 2 1.The presentation needs to clean with perfectly crimped edges and eye appeal for each piece.
2. Moulds should be choosen to allow for consistent portion sizes. For individual portion-sized tartlets a small pie is ideal larger tartlets can be cut into even pieces.
3. Apply correct techniques during stages of production.
4. Proper finishing and additional garnishing of the tarts.
5. Correct storage and quality checks are imperative to serve the product.
Answer:- 31. Incorrect techniques, such as working the paste too long to make it rubbery incorrectly weighing and too much fat etc.
2. If the flour is not mixed properly with fat, it leads to absorb too much liquid easily, form gluten, and leads to shrinkage.
3. if the proper temperature is not proper, fats may not become soft and leads to the toughness in the final product.
4. If the paste is not properly mixed, spots will form in the final product.
5. Excessive moisture in the paste will extend baking time required and extend the baking time required.
Answer:-4Melt the butter with some water→ Add the flour to create a panada→ Allow the mixture to cool then add the eggs one at a time.
Answer:-51.Boiling of the liquid and butter together
2. In the boiling liquid added the flour to burst the starch cells.
3. Proper mixing or working with the mixture with a wooden spoon and returns to heat.
4. When white layer is formed at the bottom remove it from heat and cool to below 45◦C. always cool the panada before adding the eggs, add egg one at a time.
5. Pipe onto a greased tray but leave some space to spread it even.
Answer:- 61. Flat product is usually caused by a lack of baking time, opening the oven, or baking it at wrong temperature.
2. If eggs are added when the water is too hot the protein will coagulate and the egg will not be able to form enough steam during baking to make the product rise.
3 product is too brown due to the excessive heat, extended baking time or too much sugar in the mixture.
Answer:-11 French Method:- Prepare the dough by mixing the water, salt, 10% of the fat and the flour into the basic dough, it is called pastry dough. Other 90% of the fat referred to as roll-in fat. Cut a maltese cross into the pastry dough, roll out the 4 corner, place roll out in centre and fold the 4 ends back over and make the first turn refrigerate for at least 30 minutes. After do the lamination with butter of same consistency.
2. English Method:-Prepare the dough and roll in fat as per the French method. Instead of the maltese cross, roll the pastry dough into sheet and do the same with the roll in fat. Place the roll-in fat in centre fold over the ends of the pastry dough and make the first turn.
3. Scotch Method:-It is also called the quick , blitz or all in method or referred to as rough puff. Make a lumpy paste with all ingredients and after applying the turn the paste will smooth out.
Answer:- 2A full puff has equal quantities of fat and flour in the recipe (a ratio of 1:1)
A half puff has only half quantities of fat and flour in the recipe (1/2:1) whereas ¾ puff has only ¾ fat and flour in the recipe (3/4:1).
For vol-au-vent a full puff is needed, when using the French method, whereas cheese sticks or pie tops could use a half puff or trimmings.
Answer:- 3Proper temperature conditions needs to be considered that is to bake the paste at 200-210◦C not more than that this will collapse the paste. The time period of baking should be10-15 minutes.
Answer:-4These products could use trimming or ½ and ¾ puff paste
Eccles cakes, Jalousle, Cornets, Palmlers, Fleurons, Fillet Wellington.
Answer:- 5 Product does not rise:-Oven not hot enough to set the pastry quickly.
Fat has run out of the paste:-Layering not even or too much pressure applied during pinning out; butter is too cold when rolling.
Uneven rise:-Paste was not rolled evenly; egg wash has run down the side of the paste.
Wrong colour/Unevenly cooked:-Temperature too low- product won’t brown, not enough bottom heat-bottom will be too moist temperature too high outside will brown and inside will not cook.
Texture too firm/pastry not flaky:-Too much flour used during lamination.
Answer:- 1The origin of filo paste is from Greece , Middle Eastern countries and Turkey while strudel is from the Austrian origin.
Filo production method:-Mainly produced in industries to be used as frozen item. A combination of high protein and low protein flour is used to make the dough elastic. The dough is mixed thoroughly, then rolled thinly and kept in the plastic to prevent it from drying.
Strudel production method:-the dough is not hard to produce and only contains flour, oil and water. Work the dough for about 10 minutes to develop gluten and then place a hot pot over the top and rest the dough for about 1 hour to relax the gluten and allow it to stretch. The paste is rolled out and then placed onto a floured cloth. The paste is then stretched using the back of your hands to prevent any holes and tears.
Filo pastry items:-1 Spanakopita
3. Money bags
Strudel pastry items:-1 Milchrahm strudel
2. Apple studel
3. Meatloaf in strudel in pastry
Answer:- 2 Sugar Batter method :-Butter and sugar are creamed, then the egg is added emulsified. The flour is folded under, the mixture deposited into a tin and baked at 175◦C.
Flour Batter method:- The flour is creamed with the soft butter and the sugarand eggs are whisked to sabayon stage. The two mixtures are folded together and then placed into a tin and baked at 175◦C.
Answer:- 3 Genoese Sponge:-The eggs and the sugar are whipped over a bainamarie to blood temperature , placed into a machine and whipped to sabayon stage, then the flour is folded under.
Answer:- 4 Cold sponge method:-The eggs are separated and the whites are ¾ whipped then half the sugar is folded under and the mixture is whipped until it forms a meringue. The yolks are whipped with the remaining sugar until stiff. The meringue mixture is folded carefully into the egg yolk mix and the flour is folded under.
Answer:-51 Sponge should have a golden crust and be fairly level.
2. The bubbles in the finished sponge should be even and airy and not large.
3. The texture should be springy to the touch and retain moisture.
Answer:- 1Fruit cakes are produced with a very heavy batter and have to be baked for a long time to ensure that they are well baked. Baking powder provides lightning of the batter.
Answer:- 21. The amount of the fruit will affect the moisture because too much moisture can weaken the cheese mixture.
2. High acid fruits or enzyme-containing fruit such as kiwifruit or pineapple may retard the setting properties of gelatin.
3. The acidity can be avoided by using cooked or canned varieties.
Answer:-3 Conventional:-A bavaroise is the example of this method. Soft custard is flavored and as it cools but before setting, is lightened with whipped cream and whipped cream and meringue.
Sabayon:-This is how many chocolate mousse mixes are made. A Sabayon, meringueWhipped cream and the chocolate or fruit are folded together.
Chiffon:-Custard is aerated with meringue and set.
Answer:- 4 Basic Meringue:-1. Whisp the white to a soft peak.
2. Add the sugar and mix well till it became stiff.
3. Add corn flour if baking the product.
4. Pipe into the desired shape.
Italian Meringue:-1. Whip the whites to a soft peak and pour in the hot sugar mixture whilst whipping.
2. Whip until the mixture is cold and stable.
3. Italian meringue has the best stability and finest consistency.
Swiss Meringue:-1.Beat the whites and caster sugar in a warm bain-marie until stiff.
2. Whip until cold and fold under the icing sugar.
3. It has less volume than the ordinary meringue but has a finer and more stable consistency.
Answer:- 5Scone is produced by a rub-in-method and it contains milk, egg, cream or other liquid. It is quick type of bread.
Answer:- 1 Straight method:- In this method all flour is placed into the mixer, also water, salt, and the instant yeast are added and mixed well to make a dough.
2. Two step method:- A basic dough is produced and after 2-4 hours the remaining ingredients are added. This method is used for heavier dough and mixture containing large amounts of fruit such as stolen.
Answer:- 2 Following are the steps and the key points for the care of bread dough
1. Weighing:-Calculate correct ratios and required weighs.
2. Mixing:-Ensure correct sequence , time and consistency.
3. Dough (gluten) development:-Ensure correct time and consistency.
4. Intermediate proof:-Allow for time required.
5. Knockback ,dividing and scaling:-Weigh precisely.
6. Rounding and recovery period:-Allow the correct time, cover to prevent skin development.
7. Shaping:-Shape precisely and finish quickly.
8. Moulding:-Fold correctly and place in tins, bannetons or couches.
9. Final proofing:-Ensure correct temperature and time; temperature 35-40◦C and relative humidity 85-90% for most items.
10. Baking:-Ensure correct temperature and time; this can be widely between different types of dough.
11. Cooling:-cool down on a rack with sufficient air flow to allow items to dry out and prevent sweating and stickiness.
Answer:- 3 Crumb Characteristics:-There should be a correct bread type.
Crumb texture:-Is crumb are open or closed, and even or uneven?
Aroma:-Is it blend or is there a definite acid tang to the smell?
Mouth feel:-Is the bread chewy, melt in the mouth sticky or gummy to eat?
Flavour:-What is the flavour of the bread?
Answer:- 4 Current buns:- Currants are added to the basic dough,which is then rolled into small balls, proven or baked, then finished with bun wash.
Chelsea buns:-The dough is rolled out ,brushed with butter; sprinkled with sugar and clean mixed fruit, rolled and cut into 4 cm piece, baked and glazed.
Bath buns:-they are similar to currant buns but using mixed fruit.
Hot cross:-they are also called easter special buns. They are bath buns with spices added and finished with a cross on top . this may be made with the paste.
Doughnuts or Berliners:-It is made from dough formed into balls 5cm diameter and thenproven. Deep-fried until golden brown on both sides.
Answer:- 5 Savarins:-It is a rich yeast paste containing a high proportion of butter and mixture of equal amounts of egg and milk. The finished goods are soaked in the syrup.
Baba au rhum:-It is a mixture of savarin paste mixed with currants. The Mixture is placed is placed into grease dariole moulds and once proven, they are baked.
Marignans:-They are piped into barequtte moulds, proven and baked, then soaked in syrup.
Brioche:-It is a classical French breakfast speciality. It is rich yeast dough with a high content of eggs and butter.
Answer:-1 1.Danish is a rich paste that uses a base of flour, yeast and milk, mixed and kept cold to retard the yeast and to control prove.
2. Butter is worked into block with some flour to stabilise it and then rolled out.
3. Both bases needs to have the same texture and the internal temperature should not rise above 22◦C.
4. The butter mixture is then enveloped into the paste using 3 single turns.
5. The ingredients have to be kept cold to prevent the yeast from developing too quickly.
6. When laminating the paste, roll it evenly without too much pressure to prevent any butter from squeezing out and to form even layers.
7. When proving the product keep the prover temperature below 28®c to prevent to butter melting.
Answer:- 21. Tivoli- roll paste to 3-4mm thickness and cut into 10cm squares. Pipe some pastry cream diagonally across. Fold one side up and brush with egg yolk, fold up the other side and overlap. Place apricot halves or other fruit on top of the exposed pastry cream.
2. Spandau -Roll paste to 3-4mm thickness and cut into 10cm squares. Pipe or place fillingin the centre, then fold all corners into the centre.
3. Twists or Foldovers -Roll paste to 3-4mm thickness and cut into 10cm squares. Cut along the squares 1cm from the edge without cutting all the way through. Pipe some pastry cream diagonally across and place a drained fruit piece on top. Fold both the cut corners over, brush with egg wash and press down firmly.
4. Windmills–Roll paste to 3-4mm thickness and cut into 10cm squares. Then make 3cm cuts from each corner towards the centre. Fold one side of the cut towards the middle and repeat for the other 3 cuts.
5. Bear paws-Roll paste and cut into 2 strips roughly 25cm by 40cm. Spread filling in centre then brush edges with egg wash and fold over. Cut into3-4 cm strips and cut out wedges.
6. Snail–Roll paste to 3-4mm thickness and cut into 30cm squares. Spread a thin layer of custard over it, sprinkle with sultanas, roll up into cylinder similar to a swiss roll and cut into 2cm thick pieces. Put onto a greased tray with the cut side down.
Answer:- 3. 1. Dusting:- with icing sugar and cocoa powder - this can be used on dessert items such as a profiterole or sponge, or on the plate – stencils can be used to add variety.
2.Ferathering:- this technique is used with sauces, chocolate and icing. You pipe contrasting liquid or chocolate on a plate or item and then draw it through with a paring knife to create patterns and shapes.
3. Filigree:-– Use fodant or chocolate to pipe a wide variety of shapes.
4. Sugar:- Spun, blown or pulled, piped when using fondant.
5. Tempered chocolate:– Moulds, shapes, stencils and pralines.
6. Hippenmasse:–Baked stencils or shape used to garnish.
Answer:- 4 Ganache is a mixture of fresh cream and chocolate used as a coating for cakes. Heat the cream and mix through chopped up chocolate. The ratio varies based on the desired firmness of the filling. Soft ganache has a ratio of 1 part cream to 1.5 parts chocolate and firmer gnache has a ratio of 1:2 or 1:2:5. Egg yolk, unsalted butter, liquours can be added for enriching and extra flavouring. When ganache is used as a filling is it folded with whipped cream and then spread.
Answer:- 5 1. Sauces:-Sabayon sauce, Fruit based sauces, Chocolate based sauces, Custard varieties sauce,an apricot sauce with a savarin.
2. Custards:-Crème patissiere, Crème diplomat, Crème bavarois, Mousse or mousseline, Fruit Custards.
3. Syrup:-Finished fruit sauces can be reduced to a syrup.
Answer:- 6 Crème patissiere:-It is set with flour or corn flour for a less floury taste.
Crème diplomat:-It is a basic custard refined with whipped cream.
Crème bavarois:-It is mixture of English custard, gelatine and whipped cream.
Crème Anglaise:-A mixture of egg yolks, sugar, and milk thickened by the egg yolk as it is heated.
Answer:- 1. Examples of presentation styles of pastry products are:
1. For an accompaniment with coffee, usually a selection of biscuits and small baked items is served.
2. A large hotels with a pastry kitchen will likely offer these as part of a selection usually including delicate small tartlets.
3. For high tea, petites fours may also be offered as various selection of all types on a tiered stand for each table.
4. In a patisserie, whole pastries may be placed on display for customer to choose.
5. Cake stands, platters and boards may be used to enhance the presentation.
Answer:- 2. General rules for the safe storage and labeling of pastry are:
1. Perishable items such as dairy products have to be refrigerated between 0◦C and 5◦C
2. Be aware of the danger zone and apply relevant temperature controls, e.g. cook any meat products such as pies above an internal temperature of 65◦C.
3. Soft and ripe fruits should be refrigerated.
4. Opened cans, jars and buckets must be well-sealed and are best stored in the cool room.
5. Semi –perishable items like covertures and marzipan have to be checked for use by date and rotated when new stock comes in.
6. Dry ingredients should be stored away from heat and moisture.
Answer:- 3. Base pastry:-It should be wrap tightly to prevent freezer burn and drying out.
Filling and coating:- It should be sealed properly in containers to prevent drying out, forming a skin and absorbing other flavours.
Decoration:-Seal in air tight container to retain moisture and glaze; and to prevent dust built up.
Answer:- 4 Refrigerated units keep perishable items below the danger zone and protect the prduct from dust , bacteria and accidental spills. The cabinets have to be emptied at the end of the day, cleaned and sanitized before any product is returned.
Closed in units house dry varieties of pastry products. The storage time should not exceed 2 hours And have to be emptied at end of the day, sanitized before any product is stored for next day and cleaned.
1. Proper planning will assist in avoiding excessive wastage of pastry products.
2. Correct recipe card that will provide proper yield and portion control.
3. Fresh yeast based products taste inferior on second day and product should be made freshly.
4. Finished products such as pies can be marked so they can be dived evenly without producing an undersized final piece.
5. Individuals moulds can be used .special packaging such as cellophane packs will also reduce spoilage.
6. It is also vital to try to cut- off as much as possible.
Answer:- 6. 1. It is important to maintain your work area throughout the shift you should do regular tidy up procedures as you move between tasks.
2. Cleaning is the act of removing dirt , food particles from the surface. Detergent should be used to lift the dirt.
3. Sanitation products also need to be used to reduce the amount of bacteria.
4. You should also need to clean cupboards, floors, walls, the oven, the stovetops etc
5. Keep utensils separate from each other to avoid cross-contamination
6. Clean working area when changing tasks
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