TUTORIAL 4 (A)
Leader-Someone who can influence others and who has managerial authority.
Leadership- What leaders do, the process of influencing a group to achieve goals.
A)Leadership is the action of leading people in an organization towards achieving goals. Leaders do this by influencing employee behaviors in several ways. A leader sets a clear vision for the organization, motivates employees, guides employees through the work process and builds morale.
influencing employees to understand and accept the future state of the organization.
Motivating employees - to find out enough about the needs and wants of employees, giving them what they need and providing praise for a job well done.
Guiding employees- it is important to define their role in the work process and provide them with tools needed to perform and participate in their efforts along the way. Some military are difficult.
Building morale - involves pulling everyone together to work to words a common goal. Let’s face it-fighting in a war is stressful. Soldiers are often placed in high –stress situations.
Trait theory - characteristics that that might be used to different leaders from non leaders
b) FOUR TRAITS
5) a) Kurt Lewin
autocratic – leader dictated work methods , makes unilateral decisions and limits employee participation.
involved employees in decision making, delegates authority, and uses feedback as an opportunity for coaching employees.
laissez-faire-a leader who lets group make decision and complete the work in whatever it sees it.
b)Managerial Grid.-two –dimensional grid that provides a framework for conceptualizing leadership style.
a. Contingency theories by Fiedler
-high LPC-least preferred coworker described in relatively favorable terms
low LPC–least preferred coworker described in leader is task oriented
–member relations –degree of confidence ,trust , and respect members had for leader, rated as either good or poor
-degree to which job assignments were formalized and structured, rated as high or low.
-degree of influence a leader had over activities such as hiring ,firing , discipline, promotions and salary increases, rated as either strong or weak.
-place leaders in situations suited to their style
-change the situation to fit the leader
b) Path –Goal Model by Robert House
Leader ‘s job is to assist followers in attaining their goals that are compatible with the overall objectives of the group or organization
Leader behavior is:
-makes satisfaction of subordinates needs contingent on effective performance
-provides the coaching ,guidance ,support and rewards necessary for effective performance
i)directive–lets subordinates know what’s expected of them ,schedules work to be done and give specific guidance on how to accomplish tasks
concern for the needs of followers and is friendly
iii)participative–consults with group members and uses their suggestions before making a decision.
iv)Achievement oriented –sets challenging goals and expects followers to perform at their highest level.
-two classes of contingency variables
i)environment-outside the control of the follower determine the type of leader behavior required if follower outcomes are to be maximized
ii)personal-characteristics of the followers determine how the environment and leader behavior are interpreted.
-it is redundant with sources of environmental structure
-it is incongruent with follower characteristics
Most evidence supports the logic underlying the model
a)Leader-member exchange (LMX) theory
transactional-leaders who guide or motive their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements
nspire followers to transcend their own self – interest for the good of the organization
enthusiastic, self-confident leader whose personality and actions influence people
Visionary-ability to create and articulate a realistic, credible, and attractive vision that improves the present situation
-Explain the vision to others
-express the vision verbally and behaviorall
-apply the vision to different leadership contexts
Power, authority, jurisdiction, control, command, sway, dominion mean the right to govern or rule or determine. Power implies possession of ability to wield force, authority, or influence. The power to mold public opinion authority implies power for a specific purpose within specified limits.
- Might be used as a basis for selecting the “right” people to assume formal leadership position.
- Proved to be impossible to identify a set of traits that would always differentiate leaders from non leaders
- Explanations based solely on traits ignored the interactions of leaders, their groups, and situational factors.
- Honesty and integrity-leaders build trusting relationships between themselves and followers by being truthful or non deceitful and by showing high consistency between word and deed.
- Self-confidence-Followers look to leaders for an absence of self-doubt. Leader, therefore, need to show self –confidence in order to convince followers of the rightness of their goals and decisions.
- Intelligence-Leaders need to be intelligent enough to gather , synthesize and interpret large amounts of information, and they need to be able to create visions , solve problems, and make correct decision
- Job-relevant knowledge –Effective leaders have a high degree of knowledge about the company , industry, and technical matters .In depth knowledge allows leaders to make well-informed decision and to understand the implications of those decision
- Dimensions are concern for people and concern for production
- Five management style described
- Impoverished (1,1)-minimum effort to reach goals and sustain organization membership
- arrange operations to be efficient with minimum human involvement
- adequate performance by balancing work and human concerns
- Country club (1,9)-attention to human needs and creation of comfortable work environment .
- committed people motivated by a common purpose, trust and mutual respect
- Concluded that managers should use (9,9) style little empirical evidence to support this conclusion no rationale for what made a manager an effective leader
- Effective group performance depends on matching the leader’s style and the degree to which the situation permits the leader to control and influence
- Least –Preferred coworker (LPC)-span>measure the leader’s style of interacting with subordinates
- Model assumes that leaders style was always the same and could not change in different situations
- Three contingency factors that identify eight possible leadership situation that vary in favorability
- Results indicated that:
- Task –oriented leaders performed better in situations that are very favorable to them and in situations that are very unfavorable.
- Relationship-oriented leaders performed better in situations that are moderately favorable
- Implications for improving leadership
- Considerable empirical support for the model
- nrealistic to assume that leader cannot alter her/his style
- Acceptable to the degree that group views it as a source of immediate or future satisfaction
- Motivational to the extent that it/li>
- Identifies 4 leadership behaviors>
- Assume that a leader can display any or all of the behaviors depending on the situation
- Leader behavior will be ineffective when:>
- Leader create in groups and those in the in-group will have higher performance ratings, less turnover and greater job satisfaction.
- Early on in the relationship between a leader and given follower, a leader will implicitly categorize a follower as “ in” or as an “ out”
- sans-serif">Leader encourage LMX by rewarding those employees with whom they want to closer linkage and punishing those with whom they do not.
- Contingent reward –contracts exchange of rewards for effort, promises reward for good performance ,recognizes accomplishment.
- Management by expectation (active)-watches and searches for deviation from rules and standards , takes correction action
- Management by expectation ( passive )-intervenes only if standards are not met
- Laissez-faire abdicates responsibilities avoid making decision
- Capable of having profound effect on followers
- Pay attention to concerns of followers
- Change followers awareness of issues
- Excite and inspire followers to put forth extra effort
- Built on top of transactional leadership
- Good evidence of superiority of this type of leadership/li>
- Inspiration-communicates high expectation, uses
- sans-serif">Intellectual stimulation –promote intelligence , rationality and careful problem solving
- Individualized consideration –gives personal attention, treats each employee individually, coaches , advises
- Can articulate a vision for which she is willing to take risks
- Sensitive to environmental constraints and follower needs
- Exhibit behaviors that are out of the ordinary
- Charismatic leadership correlated with high job performance and satisfaction among followers
- Individuals can be trained to exhibit charismatic behaviors
- Presents a clear and compelling imagery that inspires enthusiasm to pursue the organization ‘s goals
- People must believe that the vision is attainable
- Visionary leader has the ability to:
- Reward power
- Is the power that results from the authority to bestow rewards on other people./li>
- Managers may have access to formal rewards such as pay increases or promotions.
- They also have at their disposal such rewards as praise, attention and recognition
- Managers can use rewards to influence subordinates behavior.
- Coercive power
- Is the authority to punish or recommend punishment.
- anagers have coercive power when they have the right to fire or demote employees, criticize or withdraw pay increases
- If an employee does not perform as expected , the manager has the coercive power to reprimand him, put a negative le
- Legitimate power>
- From a formal management position in an organization and the authority granted to it.>
- Once a person has been selected as a supervisor , most employees understand that they are obligated to follow his or her direction with respect to work activities.
- Subordinates accept this sources of power as legitimate, which is why they comply.
- Expert power
- Is resulting from a person’s special knowledge or skill regarding the tasks being performed.
- When someone is a true expert, others go along with recommendations because of his or her superior knowledge.
- For example , some managers lead teams in which members have expertise that the leader lacks.
- ational persuasion
- Is the ability to control another’s behavior because the individual’s efforts , the person accepts the desirability of an offered goals and a reasonable way of achieving it.
- Much of what a supervisor does day to day involves rational persuasion up,down and across the organization.pt">Rational persuasion involves both explaining the desirability of expected outcomes and showing how specific actions will achieve these outcomes.
- Referent power
- is the ability to control another’s behavior because the person wants to identify with the power source.
- Subordinate obeys the boss because he or she wants to behave, perceive or believe as the boss does.
- This obedience may occur for example because the subordinate likes the boss personally and tries to do things the way the boss wants them done.>
- The subordinate attempts to avoid doing anything that would interfere with the pleasing boss –subordinate relationship. A person’s referent power can be enhanced when the individual taps into the moral order to shows a clearer long term path to a morally desirable end.
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