The causes of prostitution includes:
- poor social background and personality handicaps are some basis for drift into prostitution.
- previous sexual experience
- broken families
- love for money and luxury on the part of the prostitute
- anonymity of city life
- a. They say that most women who become prostitutes do so because they were forced or coerced by a pimp or by human trafficking, or, when it is an independent decision, it is generally the result of extreme poverty and lack of opportunity, or of serious underlying problems, such as drug addiction, past trauma (such as child sexual abuse) and other unfortunate circumstances. There exist certain concepts within the Victimology paradigm explaining why certain women might be at greater risk of being victimized than others. Victim offender interaction, repeat victimization and lifestyle as a factor in crime victimization are key factors describing the nature of victimization of human trafficking for involuntary prostitution. Relationships and interactions with traffickers, lifestyles and number of times women have been trafficked form an essential part of the process of human trafficking of women and girls for involuntary prostitution.
- b. Lombroso and Ferrero explained women's involvement in prostitution by claiming that prostitutes are individual women possessed of a pathological nature resulting from evolutionary degeneracy and the influence of various social factors, such as population density and poverty. They were born and bred in households in which poverty or near-poverty and its attendant evils and miseries were a common lot. Their fathers were inefficient, irregular workers who could hardly support their abnormally large families. And the homes of many of the families were unattractive, crowded and set in unwholesome neighborhoods, where children could hardly be happy or develop healthily (S. and E. Glueck, 1934, p. 299).
c. Rational choice theories postulate that criminals are rational beings who make decisions to commit crime based on the costs and benefits involved in the process of crime perpetration. Deterministic in nature, criminal decision making process is based on free will, which necessitates observation of opportunities, circumstances and situations that could affect the successful perpetration of the planned crime, (Lanier & Henry, 2004:90). It is pointed out by Brown, Esbensen and Geis, (2008:213) that rational decision making pertaining to crime also involves the choice of the victims determined by the type of crime, modus operandi, where and when to commit it and what to do afterwards. That means the criminals may first observe the accessibility to potential victims, location, the time at which they are at most vulnerable, the appropriate method that could provide entry with ease and how to safeguard their criminal activities from criminal justice authorities and other capable guardians. However, some rational theorists have argued that criminals differ in the choices they make based on their perceptions, motives, skills and abilities to read opportunities as situations guide their decisions making processes, (Lanier & Henry 2004:90). For the purpose of this paper: rational decision making, free will, cost and benefits are three variables that will help to build an integrated framework to explain human trafficking of women and girls for involuntary prostitution.
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