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Evolution of Computer System During different Generations

Published - 2022-11-14 Technology
Evolution of Computer System During different Generations


How Have Computers Evolved?

It can be challenging to recall a time when personal computers, such as desktop computers, laptops, and tablets, became such an integral part of daily life.

In truth, computers, as we know and utilize them today, are still quite young. Although the abacus, which dates back about 5000 years, was the first computer in operation, modern computers have had the biggest and most significant impact on society.

The first full-sized digital computer was built in 1944. The Mark was a five-ton computer that was only used for calculations. Despite its small size and limited capabilities, it was the first of many computers that would usher in subsequent generations. 

With the advent of your time, the modern computer began to take shape. The sixteenth century saw the beginning of the computer's development. Numerous improvements were made to the original computer. It continued to advance in terms of speed, accuracy, size, and cost in order to push the design of the current-day computer.

This extensive time is frequently easily split into the following segments known as computer generations:

Generations of Computer First To Fifth

        1. Computers of First Generation

In terms of appearance and performance, computers from the first generation are very different from those from today. Between 1940 and 1956, the first generation of computers, which had a very big size, existed. At that time, computers' internal mechanisms were simple.

  • These early machines used magnetic drums for memory together with vacuum tubes to act as switches and amplifiers.
  • The machines' enormous size and the enormous amounts of heat they produced were mostly caused by the vacuum tubes.
  • These computers generated so much heat that, despite having substantial cooling systems, they frequently overheated.

The term "machine language" refers to the same basic programming language that was utilized with early computers.

        2. Computers of the Second Generation

Computers' second generation, which spanned from 1956 to 1963, replaced vacuum tubes with transistors. They were able to produce less heat and utilize less electricity as a result.

  • Additionally, second-generation computers were substantially faster than first-generation ones.
  • The lower size of the computers was another notable modification.
  • Along with developing core memory, transistor computers also utilized magnetic storage.

        3. Computers of the Third Generation

Thanks to integrated circuits, computers' speed underwent a major change between 1964 and 1971.

  • Integrated circuits, often known as semiconductor chips, are constructed from silicon chips that have thousands of tiny transistors jammed into them.
  • As a result, computers became faster while simultaneously becoming more compact, powerful, and affordable.
  • Additionally, keyboards and monitors were now used to interface with computing devices rather than punch cards and printouts in earlier systems.

        4. Computers of Fourth Generation (1971-Present)

             The first large-scale integration (LSI) circuits based on a single chip, known as microprocessors, were utilized in 1971.

  • Its ability to do all arithmetic, logic, and control functions on a single chip using a single microprocessor is its main advantage.

  • Computers that employed microchips were referred to as microcomputers.

  • This generation provided ever more compact PCs with increased storage. Because LSI circuits weren't sufficient, Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) circuits were introduced.

  • By combining all of the components of the computer, from the central processor unit and memory to the input/output controls, onto a single chip in 1971, the size of the machine was greatly decreased thanks to Intel.

  • Technologies like multiprocessing, multiprogramming, time-sharing, operating speed, and virtual memory helped it become a more recognizable and user-friendly computer.

    The concept of personal computers and computer networks was created in the fourth generation. 

        5. Computers of the Fifth Generation

             The fifth generation of computers can function thanks to AI. It makes it possible for machines to act just like people.

  • Programs for voice recognition, medicine, and entertainment regularly use it. It has also shown amazing success in the gaming industry, where computers can outperform human opponents.
  • The fastest, smallest, and most versatile computers are from the fifth generation. Although perfect AI has not yet been achieved, it is widely expected that given current progress, this dream will also come true very soon.
  • Although there has been a major improvement in operating speed and accuracy, it is sometimes asserted when comparing the characteristics of different computer generations that the dimensions have shrunk with time.
  • Furthermore, reliability is actually increasing while value is decreasing.

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