Nursing care plan for diabetes PDF

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Added on  2022-01-08

Nursing care plan for diabetes PDF

   Added on 2022-01-08

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Nursing Care Diabetes
Name of the Student
Name of the University
Author Note
Nursing care plan for diabetes PDF_1
Part 1
Answer 1
Diabetes is defined as a group of metabolic disorder which is characterised by severe
hyperglycaemic conditions resulting from lack of proper functioning of insulin hormone.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) results from the combination of genetic factors associated
with impaired secretion of insulin hormone from the beta cells of pancreas and environmental
factors like obesity, lack of proper physical exercise, over-eating, increased level of stress and
aging (Kahn, Cooper & Del Prato, 2014). In the case study, both the genetic and the
environmental factors found significance behind the diabetes development. As per the case
study, both the mother and older sister of the patient were diagnosed with T2DM during their
early 50s. This presence of genetic history of T2DM makes patient genetically pre-disposed
to T2DM. Case study further highlighted that patient is over-weight (105 kilogram, normal
weight for 167 cm woman is 70 kilogram maximum) (Hall, 2015). She also has no significant
physical activity due to pain in the joint area arising out of Baker’s cyst and is lately passing
through over-eating due to over-consumption of ice-creams in order to manage stress. Thus it
can be said that the environmental factors are also pronounced in the patient, which lead to
the development of T2DM. The main pathophysiology underlying the development of T2DM
is development of insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion.
Nursing care plan for diabetes PDF_2
Figure: The factors leading to T2DM development
(Source: Kahn, Cooper & Del Prato, 2014)
Genetic factors make glucose unresponsive to the beta adrenergic receptors, making
glucose molecule in the blood insulin resistant. Increase in the glucose concentration in
blood, cause hyperglycemia leading to the development of T2DM. Moreover, prolong
increase in the glucose level in the blood hampers the equilibrium of the insulin secretion
from the pancreas. Thus in the absence of the proper insulin secretion and insulin resistance
of the glucose molecule, severity of the T2D increases along with increase in hyperglycemia
(Murea, Ma & Freedman, 2012).
Nursing care plan for diabetes PDF_3
Figure: Pathophysiology and progression of T2DM
(Source: Kahn, Cooper & Del Prato, 2014)
Apart from hyperglycemia, the possible complications arising out of T2DM include
diabetic retinopathy which results loss of vision, foot complications known as diabetic foot
disease, difficulty in wound healing, increase in blood pressure level, increased tendency of
developing cardiovascular disease (Ozougwu et al., 2013). Patient has high level of blood
glucose which is evident from her 22.9 mmol/L of BGL and HbA1c: 11%. The increase
threats of cardiovascular disease is evident from high blood pressure (140/80 mmHg) and
moderately high respiratory rate (22 breaths/minute) (Hall, 2015).
The main treatment options for the management of T2DM include effective lifestyle
modifications along with effective use of pharmacological interventions and non-
pharmacological interventions (Kahn, Cooper & Del Prato, 2014).
Nursing care plan for diabetes PDF_4

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