Running head: ABUSE AND JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 1 _ Abuse and Juvenile Delinquency Name Institution
ABUSE AND JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 2 Abuse and Juvenile Delinquency Introduction Abuse has affected more than one million children in the United States. Child abuse has been the source of acute injury to more than 500, 000 children as well as the death of over 1,500 children annually (Lochner, Lance, and Enrico Moretti, 2014). These large numbers show how child abuse and delinquency has impacted on the society even if they have less effect on the life of the child. Delinquency has been an increasing issue in many states in the United States. The issue of delinquency has increased as a result of early or current experiences with abuse. On the other hand, abuse is the misuse of someone in such a manner that reveals no concern for the person worth (Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew and Melanie, 2013). Child sexual abuse is a common and impactful crime with significant implications for child victims, adult survivors and the community at large. A recent meta-analysis of sixty-five prevalence studies covering twenty-two countries found that 19.7percent of women and 7.9percent of men had experienced child sexual abuse before the age of 18 (Kendler et al., 2008). Child sex offenders are overwhelmingly male and there are between 2.5 - 3 females for every male victim (Kendler et al., 2008). Children in all social classes are vulnerable to sexual abuse however institutionalized children and children in care, located at the intersections of poverty, racism, state harm, and clerical crime, have been at particular risk (Smith and Thornberry, 2017). The frequency of sexual abuse in the lives of children living with disability highlights how sexual abuse flourishes in spaces of powerlessness and vulnerability, amplifying pre-existing differentials in status and opportunity (Pelton, 2014). The life trajectory of sexual abuse victims includes a disproportionate risk of mental and physical illness, financial insecurity and criminal victimization and perpetration (Gilbert et al., 2009), at which point adult survivors find them
ABUSE AND JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 3 entangled within the criminal justice system. Survivors may find themselves entangled within the criminal justice system and other punitive institutions in a range of ways. The issue of abuse can be in the form of emotional, sexual as well as physical. In this regard, the physical abuse includes shooting, drowning, biting, throwing, suffocating or intentionally mistreating a child. Neglect or emotional abuse is manifested through persistent rejection and criticism of a child while sexual abuse is the exploitation of a child through different ways such as incest, parent molestation, and rape (Felitti et al., 2013). Some of the sexual abuse signs include the child reporting having difficulty in sitting or walking. The child may also show extremes in behaviors such as having demanding behavior, aggression or extreme passivity that make him or her attempt to commit suicide or harm them. The different kinds of abuse exposed to children make them develop delinquent behaviors due to childhood frustrations or the current trauma. According to the Children’s Law Office of South Carolina (Dubowitz and Guterman, 2010), it is reported that more than 31 South Carolina counties indicated a rise in the number of juveniles placed under detention. In 2007, it was approximated that 3.2 million referrals that involved the maltreatment of an estimation of 5.8 million children were referred to CPS agencies. Likewise, Malinsky-Rummell, Robin and David Hansen (2015) also revealed that out of 4.7 million victimizations by single offenders, about 16.8 percent of the offenders were perceived to range between twelve and seventeen. Mocan, Naci, and Erdal (2010) also indicate that out of 1.2 victimizations by multiple offenders, 34.9 percent of the offenders ranged between twelve and twenty. Based on this information, there are an enormous number of abused children as well as children victimizers. There is a need to focus on this issue in the United States because many people perceive this crime as a non-issue. Why focus on juvenile between the age of 14 and 17
ABUSE AND JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 4 years? Is the most asked question by people. This is because, at these ages, most teens become rebellious and act contrary to expectations. Some individuals assume that most of the abused teens always have a lot of freedom that allows them to participate in deviant criminal acts because of less supervision. Peer pressure is also prevalent at these ages. This paper seeks to investigate and elaborate on the United States juveniles that range between fourteen and seventeen that are in juvenile detention centers that have been abused sexually, physically and emotionally in their childhood. The paper will further explore the impact of effective therapy for delinquents. In most cases, people believe that children turn to crime because they were abused, but people should be made to understand that not all abused teens react to the abuse in a violent manner. The social importance of this study is to acknowledge that these children ought to receive some assistance before they become adults and possibly end up in prison. The first step to assist these children is to study them first. The study will open doors for resources for the abused children such as effective counseling that can be offered for them to fully recover from their previous abuse. When the relationship between the abused children and child offenders is recognized, it will provide an opportunity to assist children before they become deviant criminals. Literature Review The connection between youngster misuse and delinquent teens has been unnoticed for quite some time. There have been extensive studies that have been conducted on abuse and delinquency each indicating a different kind of results. In the Australia Institute of Family Studies, a survey was carried on women to discuss the male sexual violence against children and women (Pelton, 2014). The researchers depended on the records of the number of people who were arrested for sexual-related crimes. From the survey that was done, it was concluded that
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