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Age-based Recall Pattern Analysis for Semantic and Non-Semantic Tasks

Write a laboratory report emphasizing the procedure and methods of conducting research, as well as the statistical approach. Choose a research question and data set, apply appropriate statistical tests, and interpret the findings.

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Added on  2023-06-10

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This study explores the impact of age on the depth of processing information and recall in semantic and non-semantic tasks. The research was conducted on older and younger age groups using descriptive and multivariate analysis techniques. The study found that age is a significant factor in the ability to process information deeply and recall it. Gender was found to be insignificant. The study used five familiarized assignments and a control condition. The study is relevant to psychology and cognitive skills.

Age-based Recall Pattern Analysis for Semantic and Non-Semantic Tasks

Write a laboratory report emphasizing the procedure and methods of conducting research, as well as the statistical approach. Choose a research question and data set, apply appropriate statistical tests, and interpret the findings.

   Added on 2023-06-10

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Running head: AGE-BASED RECALL PATTERN ANALYSIS 1
Age-based Recall Pattern Analysis for Semantic and Non-Semantic Tasks
Name:
Institution:
Age-based Recall Pattern Analysis for Semantic and Non-Semantic Tasks_1
AGE-BASED RECALL PATTERN ANALYSIS 2
Abstract
Information decoding by in-depth exploration always has been a challenge to cognitive skills,
irrespective of biological age, for human beings. Although,the impact of efficient memory and
capability of learning, are the two major components for depth of processing information.
Comprehension of the molecular splitting of cognitive skills and their inter-correlations has been
explored in the present study. The exploration was executed by performance analysis of older
and younger age groups in semantic and non-semantic tasks. Both age groups performed 5
familiarized assignments where one particular assignment was under the control condition. The
research work was accomplished using the descriptive as well as multivariate analysis
techniques. Age was found to be the imperative factor for the depleted ability for the profundity
of processing the information. Gender of the participants was discovered to be an insignificant
aspect of the present psychoanalysis. Consequently, the research was oriented around the
influence of age difference on information recall.
Age-based Recall Pattern Analysis for Semantic and Non-Semantic Tasks_2
AGE-BASED RECALL PATTERN ANALYSIS 3
Introduction
Cognitive learning from proficiency and skillfulness has been thoroughly discussed and
analyzed by various psychologists. The deficit in attention and depth of information processing
has been identified as the key factors in incidental learning (van der Stel&Veenman, 2008).
Earlier research, during the 6th decade of the 19thcentury, witnessed micro level psychoanalysis of
cognitive processes.
Implication and Backdrop of the Research
Craik and Lockhart in 1972 approached the research in cognitive skills in a more holistic
way. They scrutinized the cognitive deficits as individual components instead of combining the
function of attention and short-term memory (Craik & Lockhart, 1972). Insufficiency of the
depth of information processing and lacuna in attentive memory was discovered as the two
primary consequences of age decrement of human memory. The indoctrination of information
coding and reverse coding process was considered to be analogous in the scale of cognitive
difficulty. The situation or task orienting performance of recalling informative facts was
observed to be dependent on age decrement in a negative manner. Particularly, older subjects
were unable to perform considerably in secondary memory tasks, where the division of attention
and short-term memory were used in processing semantic jobs. Hyde and Jenkins in 1973
unearthed an experimental way to expose the age decrement effect on cognitive task
performance. The researchers caught the participants unprepared for memory tests. The
participants’ anticipatory factor of the laboratory examination plan was removed by means of the
swift approach. The predicament of the inattentive approach of the participants and thus effective
of rapid approach technique were the paradigms for the incidental memory. Semantic and
Age-based Recall Pattern Analysis for Semantic and Non-Semantic Tasks_3
AGE-BASED RECALL PATTERN ANALYSIS 4
syntactic tasks were performed by the respondents, where semantic tasks yielded improvised
recall from the subjects. Improvised and extensive structured recall of words and semantic
information was observed since the participants were barred from orienting tasks. The outcome
highlighted the disparity insemantic and non- semantic recalling of the subjects. The effect of
pre-knowledge on the recall paradigm of the experimental setup was found to be relatively
constant with that of the absence of knowledge of the experiments (Salthouse, 2016).
Christian Fullgrabe et al. in 2015 experimented for auditory processing and cognitive
control by speech identification with two different age groups. Participants were either 60 years
or older or between 18 to 29 years. The auditory experiment indicated the consequence of cohort
effects where no significant difference was identified. The researchers confirmed the test results
by matrix reasoning and block design experimentations. In 2011, Alan Gow et al. examined the
stability in intelligence referenced to the age bracket of 11 years to 70 years. The cognitive
capability related to age maturity of the participants as well as effect of previous cognitive
proficiency was analyzed. In the cohort study, the age transitional cognitive capabilities were
examined. Intelligence efficiency and better mental processing were two primary aspects of
young minds in the age bracket of 11 years.
The research scholar in the current psychology research has attempted to bridge the
hypotheses with semantic as well as non-semantic tasks. The attempt has been made to identify
the distinction and development in attentive skills in humans from childhood all the way through
adulthood (Danckert& Craik, 2013). The aim of the present research was to identify the age
influence on depth of processing of information and effects on recalling.
Age-based Recall Pattern Analysis for Semantic and Non-Semantic Tasks_4
AGE-BASED RECALL PATTERN ANALYSIS 5
Hypothesis
The research was performed by hypothesizing the primary goal which was described as
follows, biological age of human does not affect the in-depth processing of information and
recalling of previous facts.
Variables
Gender and age group of the participants were the two independent factors.No of recalls
in five orientation tasks was the dependent factor of the study. Gender of the subjects was found
to be an insignificant factor in comparative analysis and hence excluded from variable listing.
The recall tasks were also the deciding factors in the research work.
Method
The study was framed with five special and memory cognition orienting tasks.
Additionally, a control examination setup among the five tasks was also provided. The
participants recalled as many words as they learned them; the task was repetitive in nature. The
experiment involved 10 groups of participants with equal number of male and females in each
group. The experiment design was a 5 X 2 (orientation tasks X age groups) factorial analysis.
The scholar acknowledged the inelegance method involved in random formation of the groups
(Eysenck, 1974).
Participants
Potential participants or subjects were engaged from the Psychology department of the
University. The target age groups were divided into young and old subcategories. The
advertisement was placed in the University public spaces (e.g., notice boards) and psychology
Age-based Recall Pattern Analysis for Semantic and Non-Semantic Tasks_5
AGE-BASED RECALL PATTERN ANALYSIS 6
students, as well as professors, were invited for the research. The encouraged and interested
participants were segregated in age group of 18 years to 30 years and 60 years to 85 years with
50 members in each age bracket. The mean age of the young age group was 23.78 years (SD =
3.73 years, Range = 18 – 29 years) and that of the old age group was 74.76 years (SD = 6.77
years, Range = 63 – 85 years). All the participants took part in the “Mill Hill Vocabulary Scale”.
All of them performed exceptionally well, which indicated the efficiency of the subjects. The
average years of education for younger age group was 13.72 years (SD = 0.88 years, Range = 13
– 15 years) and that of the old age group was 13.68 years (SD = 0.84 years, Range = 13 – 15
years). Gender wise, 56 females were recruited with mean age of 49.64 years (SD = 26.22 years,
Range = 18 – 85 years) and 44 males were enlisted with mean age of 48.80 years (SD = 26.44
years, Range = 18 – 85 years).
Independent and Dependent Variables
The independent factor between the gatherings was taken as age groups of the
participants while sex was dismissed due to insignificant effect on the cognitive abilities, for the
purpose of the investigation. The number of successful recalls in five orienting and distinct kinds
of tasks wasconsidered as the dependent factors.
Ethics
The researcher with the end goal of this investigation received ethical approval. The
researcher has acquired authorization from University Ethics committee, preceding leading the
investigation. The researcher acquired 2017/123 as ethics number from ethical board of trustees.
The target of the examination and all other important subtle elements were talked about. The
researcher did not unveil any individual subtle elements like address, name, contacts of interest
Age-based Recall Pattern Analysis for Semantic and Non-Semantic Tasks_6

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