# Answer 1.. (a.). We know that,. Mass number is the sum

Added on - Oct 2019

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Answer 1.(a.)We know that,Mass number is the sum of the number of proton and the number of neutronsTherefore,Number of the protons = Mass number - Number of neutrons= 25 - 13= 12The atomic number of the element is equal to the number of protons = 12.(b.)c.) There are only two electrons in the outer most shell therefore the atom would prefer to losetwo of its electron and become a cation rather than gaining six electrons.2.(a.) If the electronegativity difference is zero then the bond is non-polar covalent. If thedifference between the electro negativities is more than zero but less than 2, then the bond ispolar covalent and if the difference between the electro negativities is more 2, then the bond isionic.