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World Interoperability Assignment PDF

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Added on  2021-06-17

World Interoperability Assignment PDF

   Added on 2021-06-17

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Answer 1:-WiMAX is called as World Interoperability for Microwave Access. WiMAX technology is amedia communication innovation that offers transmission of remote information throughmeans of various transmission methods, like mobile internet access via multiple hub links. Itis based on IEEE 802.16 standard. This technology is future replacement to traditional linksand Dial Subscriber lines (DSL). Security is constantly essential in information systemshowever, it is specially significant in wireless networks such as WiMAX. There are variousdata encryption standards to encrypt the confidential information flowing through thewireless network. Some of them are:-1.Advanced Encryption standard (AES) is based upon strong algorithm calledRijndael algorithm which offers solid cryptographic properties. It is quick, simple toexecute in equipment and programming and uses less memory than other algorithms.AES operates on very fast broad selection with greater efficiency. This algorithm canwork on 128, 192, or 256 bits of keys but for WiMAX it 128 bit. In AES operationmode is chosen wisely so that there will be no security holes left as it cause potentialthreat to the data. Counter mode is used while encrypting the data. An arbitrary blockis firstly encrypted using AES and then outcome is XORed with plain text to get thecipher text. In counter mode, the blocks are incremented by 1 for every input so thatthere will no pattern for two identical inputs. Decryption is done the same way. Thecipher text is XORed two times to get the original value. Counter mode is essential forparallel encryption of data. (Anonymous, 2017, p.5)2.Data encryption standard is a symmetric key algorithm in which same key is usedfor encryption and decryption of data. It takes 64-bits (8 characters). In this, text isturned into cipher text with the help of a key and is sent to receiver, then receiver candecrypt it the same key. But this encryption is not reliable as it can be break by specialtools within no time. This is the reason for introduction of Triple data encryptionstandard. It is the three times reiteration of data encryption standard. Means, it takes192-bits (24 characters). Initially data is encoded with DES algorithm using initialkey, then the encrypted data is decrypted using a different key and the new block isre-encrypted using original key. It is very slow as compared to DES as it repeatedthree times. (Thakur, 2017, p.5)3.Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA-1) is said to be secure hashing in the US digitalsignature standard. It is one of best hashing algorithm that performs one-way
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encryption. It takes input in 512 bit blocks and produces 160 bit message. Thisstandard algorithm is used to send the signed message from sender to beneficiary. Inthis, text is converted into 160 bit hash using SHA algorithm. At that time sendersigns that hash with RSA private key and both signed hash and text to the beneficiary.After receiving the message the receiver computes the hash and furthermore applieskey to obtain the original message. Answer 2-The deployment of wireless networks has increased rapidly due to increase in datatransmission bandwidth of wireless technology. Nowadays, numerous mobile station usewireless medium to surf the internet or other services ultimately creating a dense mobilenetwork. This resulted into competition among mobile stations to take privilege of wirelessnetwork. This will definitely create traffic. To overcome the issue of traffic and overlappingmedium access control (MAC) is used. Carrier sense multiple access (CSMA) denotesmedium access control. CSMA works on the principle that only device can send data at atime. In CSMA every node is verified the absence of any other nodes before transmission ofdata. It basically senses the traffic signals to avoid overlapping of data. In this, transmitter isput at the receiver’s end; the transmitter gives feedback about any other data transmission.The additional techniques to get rid of traffic and to get suitable coordination are to useCSMA with CA i.e collision avoidance. This technique senses the traffic in gateway line andit sensed busy, it differs the data transmission for a period of time. This reduces the risk ofcollision and overlapping. Similarly, CSMA can be used with CD collision detection to checkwhether the collision is already happened. (Agardh, 2015, p.5)Answer 3 – The Internet of Things (IoT) is the inter-connection of smart devices via internet embedded indifferent household objects, enabling these objects to collect and exchange data. Over theyears, definition of IoT has evolved, their product capabilities are increased and now productscan perform tasks beyond their primary function. World has seen a series of innovativetransformations from cars to office buildings to home appliances. Internet of things productshave developed from simple physical components to complex products that consists of
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sensors, actuators, processors and many more things. Today, IoT products are bothtechnologically and financially feasible. Internet of things is connecting more gadgetsconsistently and we’re headed to a world that will have 30 billion IoT gadgets by 2022. Now,be it a house owner or car owner or a building owner everything is now built with smartthings to reduce the power consumption and get the better result out of it. The developmentof IoT conveys a few advantages, as it will change the way individual do ordinaryundertakings and conceivably change the world. Having a shrewd will definitely fascinateyour guests and yet good management of lighting can lower your electric bill. Types of wireless technology that uses IoT devices:Zigbee- It is open wireless network used specifically in Machine to machine (M2M)networks. It is the type of affordable and inexpensive technology that uses less poweroften used in many industrial applications. This technology has low delay times i.e.low latency and low obligations cycle enabling products to amplify battery life.WiMax – It is the acronym for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave access. It isa remote innovation in which information can be exchanged at the rate of 40-45megabits for each second. It is based on IEEE 802.16 benchmarks. It can be utilizedboth in inside and outside however it gives better flag when utilized outside.With the increasing number of IoT users’ security and privacy are major concerns.Some of the security issues are : Open perception – This is the primary issue the makers address. In 2016, astudy of smart homes shows that 44 percent of the Australians were worried oftheir private information being stolen from dwelling home. That’s why theyignore to buy the smart gadgets.Powerlessness to Hacking – Possessed with the ability of hackingimpersonators can get into genuine, accessible devices which inferimpersonators have the capability to get into vulnerabilities again and again.For instance, scientists found a lot of openings i.e. vulnerabilities in Samsungbrilliant things and the methods were long route from complex. (Eastwood,2017, p.5)Software Update – Day by day internet of things is turning into reality things,significantly greater security is required. Anyway, paying no attention to thechance that you start thinking about security, new device making companies
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