Assignment on Electrophysiology

Added on - Apr 2020

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21)The main aim of electrophysiology is to record the activity of neurons. In vivo methods are usedto record the activities from a single neuron. Through this method, the neuron cells are able topass the important message through integration and propagation of electrical signals. Theneurons are of different sizes and shapes but they play the same organized function of thetransmission of the signals. The dendrites are able to receive the signals from other neuronsthrough this method and then send them through synapses. The major difference in this methodand the extracellular recordings performed in lab is that this method is able to involve bothchemical and electrical signals in the transmission of the signals (Gustavo et al., 2012). Thelaboratory test is able to involve only the electrical signals when transmitting the signal. The factthat the extracellular recordings is under control means that one can divert the signals to followdifferent paths and therefore able to record different recordings from multiple neurons. Inaddition, the.polarization of the membrane is able to allow the observation of the activity atdifferent potentials and therefore able to record it at different points(Gordh and Headrick, 2009).The action potential is able to pass at one point and therefore causing a recording at that point.The extracellular electrodes are able to detect very small potential changes and therefore makingit possible to record those changes. Lastly, the electrode is usually connected to the positive inputof the voltage recording. This makes it possible to record the action potential whenever theyhappen.2)The neuronal property, which is able to account for the stereotyped shape of action potential, isthe distance of placement of the electrodes from the neuron. The stabilization of the electricalconductivity is usually achieved when the electrodes are placed on far distance from the neurons
3(Gustavo et al., 2012). The stabilization of the acyional potential is able to produce the samestereotyped shape. Similar shaped will be produced at this level and able to lead to similarproperties and shape type. When the electrodes are placed near the neuron, the action potentialfrom the positive electrode and the negative potential from the negative electrode are able tocollide. This is able to cause difference in the shape produced at any moment. Another keyelement, which is able to lead to the difference of the stereotyped shapes, is the extracellularfluid. The fluid is able to account for the speed at which the signal will be send and therefore thedetection level. Ionic currents are able to move at different speed leafing to the.formation of thedifferent shapes at the end (Della, Santinaa and Lewisa, 2013). The electrical potential measuringinstrument is at times able to result to the stereotyped shape. The manner on which thisinstrument is able to measure and record the potentials is able to dictate the shapes, which will beachieved at any given moment between two points. The instrument nature of sensing the signalwill therefore be a key property on the shape, which will be produced. The electrical potentialbetween the electrodes will determine the speed and recording of the shape at the differentpoints.3)The filtering of the voltages is able to range from 0.1Hz and 300 Hz on the high pass and on thelow pass filters between 0.3 to 20 kHz coupled with 60 Hz notch filters. Signals have to befiltered and observed properly at different frequencies in order to allow the amplification ofaction potential. Filtering of the voltages is essential to ensure that the best response is attained atspecific voltage during the filtering process. The action of the cockroach's nerve action willdiffer according to the voltage at which it is exposed unto (Kruszelnicki, 2006). The sensoryconduction differs according to the voltages at which the cockroach is exposed. This ensures that
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