Design and Construction of Basement Foundation: Raft or Mat Type


Added on  2019-09-23

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Design and Construction of Basement Foundation: Raft or Mat Type_1

Executive summaryAbasementis a structural portion of abuildingthat is either partially or completely below the naturalground level. From a structural perspective of a common man, one may think that all the basements aredesigned equal. But the reality is that each basement design has its own pros and cons. They can be atdifferent levels according to the requirement of the building and the purpose of the basement to be use.In this office building, we need basement for the parking purpose. The construction of any type ofbasement is quite difficult task and it is also a high-risk work that can affects the existing structures ofthat area because we need to dig under the ground which affects the water table and the soil. Thearchitect and the structure engineers work together to simplify this problem and deliver any project ontime with cost effectiveness.1
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IntroductionThe Government of New South Wales has launched a program named Newcastle Urban Transformation and Transport Program Transport for NSW (TFNSW) is the main public transport agency of the Government of NSW. The main purpose of this policy is to give and issues the policies regarding the all the models and kind of transportation that will help the commoners to travel in the city. It also helps the local bodies to plan and construct the roads to commute easily without any traffic related infrastructure in NSW. The main reason why we are doing this project and making report about it is to present the necessary technical information regarding the project like the construction of the building and the techniques to be use for its construction. The main purpose of the said report is to present the design and construction of structure of the most compatible basement foundation for the commercial retail project. Transportation to NSW is responsible for improving the transportation customer experience service, transportation policy and regulation, planning and administration of programs, transportation and infrastructure services and freight. The Program has an objective to attract people back to the city center by reinforcing connections between the waterfront and the city, providing job opportunities, creating more public places and spaces, and developing better transport. The official governed body has also announced the proper budget for the construction and management of the building and that is of 500 million dollars. The company wants to build an office with retail complex and the 1 level parking in basement and for that purpose they acquire a land at Honeysuckle, Newcastle CBD. 2
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Site AnalysisSeventeen boreholes have been excavated from existing basement floor level, to depths of 4m and 5m. borehole logs are contained within this document. The base condition of the site consists mainly of sand and gravels and there is a layer of cohesive layer found at six meters below the ground level.As per our site conditions and the bore hole test results. We will recommend to build the poured concrete walls type basement. It is the common type of construction for any office. In this type of construction, we cast the RCC walls on the periphery of the building and wherever required. These RCC walls are long along the floor height of the basement. These wall not only withstand all the load of the building but also resist the earth load or the load from neighboring buildings This technique of basement construction begins with spilling the base for foundation of the basement. When they are defined, the shapes are come in hand to keep the concrete wall spilled in place for the time when they are drying. Hollow concrete walls have proved to be stronger when compared to other kinds of basement walls.Site plan3
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Suitability and buildability of the various basement constructionmethods in response to specific site conditionsFor any work for basements, construction regulations are applicable and cover areas including ventilation, drainage, roof heights, waterproofing, electrical wiring, water supply, and means of escape and so on. See the construction regulations for more information.The basement can be subdivided into three categories, depending on their location, construction time in relation to the property superstructure above ground and depth. A brief outline of the differences and the main issues corresponding to each of them are described below.Types of Basement:1.RefurbishmentIt may be necessary to lower the floor to increase the space of the head, holding adjacent walls,increasing lighting as well as ventilation. It commonly involves improvements to existing or a newwaterproofing system, and replaced finishes and accessories. The benefit of this type of basement is thatit adds value to the property and also provide the more usable space.2.New Garden BasementNew basement can be constructed adjacently to the already existing property, usually in a garden orbackyard space new structure under the ground, with green roof planted or terrace at garden level. 3.Retrofit basementThis type of basement is generally used in the existing buildings. In this type of basement what we do is we retrofits the existing floor by creating new more space under the existing floor. It gives more space to the existing building, which can be used for the different purposes as per the demand and the design.Common types and methods of Basement construction, which we use:4
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As per the site condition and the client demand there are many types and methods of basement construction, which we use and will discuss now. The main necessity of any basement is its foundation it provides strength and base to the basement to withstand all the necessary loads. The base or foundation of the basement not only give resistance to the different loads but also support the building to withstand against different climatic condition, say, wind load, earthquake (dynamically affects the building) load, snow load (in specified areas according to the government recommended codes). As per the above-mentioned conditions we have many kinds of methods to construct a basement but the most common are stated below: Top Down construction Vertical cutOpen cutTop Down construction It is a construction method, which constructs the section of the permanent structure of the basement, along with the excavation from top to bottom. This method is applied for shallow basement which need to be excavated with sloping side. This type of method is adopted when we have to construct the levels of the structure from the base level of the soil to the top of the building This type of construction not only economies the structure but it also saves the time of the building.Advantages: It takes less time in the construction as compared to other methods.Low risk of ground movement Reduce the effect of bad weatherDisadvantages:High budgetRequire complex support construction Require lighting and ventilationRestrict the access of material handling.Application:Its is use when we need to build very large basement.5
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