Body Integrity Assignment PDF

Added on - 31 May 2021

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Body Integrity1
Allergic asthma:Allergic asthma is the most common type of asthma in the children. In comparison to the 50% adults, 90 % children develop allergic asthma. Pollen, dust mites and mold are mainlyresponsible for the allergic asthma. Allergic asthma gets exaggerated after performingexercise in cold air and after breathing smoke, dust and fumes. When airways encounter withallergen, it become hypersensitive and immune system get activated and IgE antibodiesproduced. IgE release chemicals like histamine and other mediators which are responsible forthe swelling and inflammation. Mucus deposition also occur in airways. It results in thesymptoms like runny nose, itchy eyes and sneezing. Symptoms of allergic asthma includecough, wheezing, shortness of breath, frequent breathing and chest tightness. Allergensresponsible for the occurrence of allergic asthma include windblown pollen from trees,grasses, and weeds; mold spores and fragments, dust mite feces, cockroach feces and animaldander (from hair, skin, or feathers) and saliva. Even though irritants does not cause allergicasthma; it can trigger asthma attack. Following are the tests which can be useful in detectingallergic asthma: pricking the skin with small number of allergens can lead to red colorationafter 20 minutes and blood test positive for IgE. These tests can be useful for diagnosis ofallergic reaction. In addition to this spirometry and lung function test can be useful inevaluating impairment of lung function due to allergic asthma (Schatz and Rosenwasser,2014; Khan, 2014).Pathophysiology:Asthma pathophysiology involves different events like bronchoconstriction, airway oedema,airway hyperresponsiveness and airway remodelling. Inhaled allergens ingested by antigenpresenting cells (APCs). APCs present allergens to the immune cells like Th0. These cells getpolarised to Th2 cells to produce cascade of inflammatory events. Allergens produces IgEdependent release of mediators like histamine, leukotrienes and prostaglandins from mastcells. These mediators produce bronchoconstriction and narrowing of the airways. Airwayinflammation is one of the prominent cause of bronchoconstriction. Inflammatory cells suchas Th2 lymphocytes, mast cells, eosinophils, dendritic cells, epithelial cells, microphases andresident cells of airway are responsible for inflammation in asthma patients. Cytokinessecreted from Th2 cells such as IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 play important role in inflammation inasthma. Inflammatory cells, inflammatory mediators and cytokines are responsible for thechronic and progressive inflammation. It leads to airway oedema. Mucus hypersecretion and2
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