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This paper introduces the basic concepts of cryptography, its importance in network and web security, and the different types of cryptography algorithms. It also discusses network security, web security, and network attacks. Subject: Cryptography, Course Code: NA, Course Name: NA, College/University: NA

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Running head: CRYPTOGRAPHY

Cryptography

Name of the Student

Name of the University

Author Note

Cryptography

Name of the Student

Name of the University

Author Note

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1CRYPTOGRAPHY

Table of Contents

Introduction....................................................................................................................2

Cryptography..................................................................................................................2

Network Security.......................................................................................................3

Web Security..............................................................................................................5

Network Attacks.........................................................................................................6

Conclusion......................................................................................................................8

References......................................................................................................................9

Table of Contents

Introduction....................................................................................................................2

Cryptography..................................................................................................................2

Network Security.......................................................................................................3

Web Security..............................................................................................................5

Network Attacks.........................................................................................................6

Conclusion......................................................................................................................8

References......................................................................................................................9

2CRYPTOGRAPHY

Introduction

Cryptography is the branch of cryptology, and it is in the field of implementing the

cryptographic system. Cryptology has another branch called as the cryptanalysis where the

cryptographic systems were breaks (Stallings, 2017). Cryptography is the area where

mathematics and computer science were concentrates on the criteria to secure communication

between two parties while the third party is the present while this approaches, concepts such

as encryption, decryption, signing, generating of the pseudo-random numbers, and others.

There are four principles of the cryptography and these are confidentiality, data

integrity, non-repudiation, and authentication. Confidentiality means there are a set of rules

which should be maintained and that limits the access or adds restrictions on some of the

information. The data integrity means which have to check the consistency and the accuracy

of the data in its full life-cycle (Lindell & Katz, 2014). The authentication is the term which

confirms an attribute is true or not of a datum which was said to be true by some entity. And

non-repudiation works on the inability of an author of a statement to ensure it and some

information to deny it.

This paper introduces the basic concepts of the cryptography. The paper includes

what cryptography is, what are the different forms of the cryptography that are used in the

modern generation and how it is helpful for the people (Bennett & Brassard, 2014). Further

how the implementation of the cryptographic process can help in integrating data security.

What major changes are needed in the recent future are also a major part of the report.

Cryptography

In Cryptography at first it works on in encrypted data which is referred to as plain text

and then the plaintext is encrypted into ciphertext which will be again decrypted to using

plain text (Kosba et al., 2016). The concept of encryption and decryption is fully based on the

Introduction

Cryptography is the branch of cryptology, and it is in the field of implementing the

cryptographic system. Cryptology has another branch called as the cryptanalysis where the

cryptographic systems were breaks (Stallings, 2017). Cryptography is the area where

mathematics and computer science were concentrates on the criteria to secure communication

between two parties while the third party is the present while this approaches, concepts such

as encryption, decryption, signing, generating of the pseudo-random numbers, and others.

There are four principles of the cryptography and these are confidentiality, data

integrity, non-repudiation, and authentication. Confidentiality means there are a set of rules

which should be maintained and that limits the access or adds restrictions on some of the

information. The data integrity means which have to check the consistency and the accuracy

of the data in its full life-cycle (Lindell & Katz, 2014). The authentication is the term which

confirms an attribute is true or not of a datum which was said to be true by some entity. And

non-repudiation works on the inability of an author of a statement to ensure it and some

information to deny it.

This paper introduces the basic concepts of the cryptography. The paper includes

what cryptography is, what are the different forms of the cryptography that are used in the

modern generation and how it is helpful for the people (Bennett & Brassard, 2014). Further

how the implementation of the cryptographic process can help in integrating data security.

What major changes are needed in the recent future are also a major part of the report.

Cryptography

In Cryptography at first it works on in encrypted data which is referred to as plain text

and then the plaintext is encrypted into ciphertext which will be again decrypted to using

plain text (Kosba et al., 2016). The concept of encryption and decryption is fully based on the

3CRYPTOGRAPHY

type of the cryptography scheme. Cryptography is heavily used to encrypt and decrypt data

with the creation of mathematical algorithms. And the cryptanalysis has the concept of only

analyzing and breaking the encryption schemes. There are three types of cryptography

algorithms. And the algorithms will be further categorized in the basis of a number of keys

for encryption and decryption (Mirhosseini et al., 2015). The secret key cryptography which

is commonly known as SKC and also called symmetric encryption because it uses a single

key to work on both encryption and decryption. Basically used for privacy and

confidentiality. The public key cryptography also known as PKC and also called as

asymmetric scheme because it uses the different key for the encryption and the decryption

and this is used for the purpose of authentication, non-repudiation and key exchange. And the

last hash function uses mathematically transformation to encrypt data irreversibly by the

digital fingerprint. And it is used in message integrity.

Network Security

The cryptography is the component of network security and it is concerned about the

destruction, unauthorized use of network resources and how to protect from this. Network

security works on all kind of data it can access and plays a vital role in the wireless network

systems. Security is a lack of knowledge and everyone are not aware of these things and

people need to know these things (Cimato & Yang, 2017). Encryption is another component

of network security and is the most efficient way to decrease data loss. In the network, safety

encryption will apply the crypto facilities at the network transmission layer on the top of the

data link layer and below the application layer. Encryption in a network security has another

name as network layer encryption. The term encryption, in the network security system,

works through internet protocol security layers and helps in the process of standardizing the

internet engineering task force. This also helps in the process of construction of the structure

for private communication over an internet protocol network. Internet protocol executes the

type of the cryptography scheme. Cryptography is heavily used to encrypt and decrypt data

with the creation of mathematical algorithms. And the cryptanalysis has the concept of only

analyzing and breaking the encryption schemes. There are three types of cryptography

algorithms. And the algorithms will be further categorized in the basis of a number of keys

for encryption and decryption (Mirhosseini et al., 2015). The secret key cryptography which

is commonly known as SKC and also called symmetric encryption because it uses a single

key to work on both encryption and decryption. Basically used for privacy and

confidentiality. The public key cryptography also known as PKC and also called as

asymmetric scheme because it uses the different key for the encryption and the decryption

and this is used for the purpose of authentication, non-repudiation and key exchange. And the

last hash function uses mathematically transformation to encrypt data irreversibly by the

digital fingerprint. And it is used in message integrity.

Network Security

The cryptography is the component of network security and it is concerned about the

destruction, unauthorized use of network resources and how to protect from this. Network

security works on all kind of data it can access and plays a vital role in the wireless network

systems. Security is a lack of knowledge and everyone are not aware of these things and

people need to know these things (Cimato & Yang, 2017). Encryption is another component

of network security and is the most efficient way to decrease data loss. In the network, safety

encryption will apply the crypto facilities at the network transmission layer on the top of the

data link layer and below the application layer. Encryption in a network security has another

name as network layer encryption. The term encryption, in the network security system,

works through internet protocol security layers and helps in the process of standardizing the

internet engineering task force. This also helps in the process of construction of the structure

for private communication over an internet protocol network. Internet protocol executes the

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4CRYPTOGRAPHY

architecture and then show to be the same as encrypted packets to unencrypted packets and

can rout easily by the internet protocol network.

There are several companies which work on network encryption merchandise and

facilities such as Oracle, Cisco, and others (Peikert, 2016). The knowledge of encryption has

become the important and essential part of network security. It is very important to protect

data. The two type of keys are used to protect data and network and these are a public key

and private key. Public key was designed in the year 1976 and referred to cipher architecture

type. It is basically used to encrypt data and corresponding private key to decrypt that data.

The public key is based upon very secure and it does not require any undisclosed public key

among sender and receiver. It purposefully uses to store private emails and keep on mail

servers for many times. The private key is also secured key and also called an encryption key

or decryption key to send and receive messages from senders and receivers so that every

message can be encrypted and decrypted. Nowadays PIN is the most important and secured

way to login into any system and the network.

Every individual user must have an individual login and password to access the

network and it will help in increasing the security level. Some important things to ensure

secure password in the network system are as follows, extended password, change password

anytime, avoid utilization of similar password, the necessity to change the password regularly

(Van Tilborg & Jajodia, 2014). Every user has to keep a long type password as a short

password is very easy to analyze. Users should change the password regularly so that can

easily get that. Users should not use the same password over and over because it can naïve

administration to think. Users always should check their work accounts from a remote

location and should frequently change the password. Symmetric encryption system works

like a private key because it is also used to encrypt and decrypt data and exchanged between

two keys. There are two types of the symmetric encryption system, stream ciphers, and block

architecture and then show to be the same as encrypted packets to unencrypted packets and

can rout easily by the internet protocol network.

There are several companies which work on network encryption merchandise and

facilities such as Oracle, Cisco, and others (Peikert, 2016). The knowledge of encryption has

become the important and essential part of network security. It is very important to protect

data. The two type of keys are used to protect data and network and these are a public key

and private key. Public key was designed in the year 1976 and referred to cipher architecture

type. It is basically used to encrypt data and corresponding private key to decrypt that data.

The public key is based upon very secure and it does not require any undisclosed public key

among sender and receiver. It purposefully uses to store private emails and keep on mail

servers for many times. The private key is also secured key and also called an encryption key

or decryption key to send and receive messages from senders and receivers so that every

message can be encrypted and decrypted. Nowadays PIN is the most important and secured

way to login into any system and the network.

Every individual user must have an individual login and password to access the

network and it will help in increasing the security level. Some important things to ensure

secure password in the network system are as follows, extended password, change password

anytime, avoid utilization of similar password, the necessity to change the password regularly

(Van Tilborg & Jajodia, 2014). Every user has to keep a long type password as a short

password is very easy to analyze. Users should change the password regularly so that can

easily get that. Users should not use the same password over and over because it can naïve

administration to think. Users always should check their work accounts from a remote

location and should frequently change the password. Symmetric encryption system works

like a private key because it is also used to encrypt and decrypt data and exchanged between

two keys. There are two types of the symmetric encryption system, stream ciphers, and block

5CRYPTOGRAPHY

ciphers. Stream ciphers are the bit of information and can works on 1 bit at a time. For that, it

can work faster to generate and have an important security gap as it is smaller. There are

some types of attacks which can implement the data to reveal. The block ciphers encrypt the

data by breaking them into blocks and encrypts the information in each of the blocks and the

information has a fixed size that can be of 64 bits and commonly use in triple DES and AES

(Pirandola et al., 2015. The symmetric encryption algorithm is basically used in internet

protocol sector. For wireless network RC4 is commonly used. These symmetric encryption

algorithms are very fast and they can easily generate in hardware because of their relatively

low complexity. For weak password, the symmetric encryption system can break. The

asymmetric encryption system is a setup of a key pair and these two keys are of use for

encryption and another one for decryption. One key can encrypt the data and another one can

decrypt the data. One key is for the public so that anyone can access it and another key is for

private use only so that only the receiver can access it. Asymmetric encryption algorithm has

some elements, plaintext, encryption algorithm, public and private keys, ciphers text and

decryption algorithm (Chen et al., 2015. Plain text is a text message which usesn the

algorithm. To conduct the mathematical operations the encryption algorithm is used. RSA is

very slow but it can establish a secured channel over a non-secure channel such as the

internet.

Web Security

Web security is very important in daily life in terms of online searching, emails, and

others. Web services have many problems like spam, viruses, and others. Some of the risks

that are present in web security such as internet protocol address identifying the computer and

some attacks are there such as SQL injection attacks (Abadi & Andersen, 2016). Tools of

web security are spike proxy, power fuzzer, sec point penetrator, net sparked, OWASP, Gama

sec, Nikto scanner, perimeter check. There are untrained users who set up unauthorized

ciphers. Stream ciphers are the bit of information and can works on 1 bit at a time. For that, it

can work faster to generate and have an important security gap as it is smaller. There are

some types of attacks which can implement the data to reveal. The block ciphers encrypt the

data by breaking them into blocks and encrypts the information in each of the blocks and the

information has a fixed size that can be of 64 bits and commonly use in triple DES and AES

(Pirandola et al., 2015. The symmetric encryption algorithm is basically used in internet

protocol sector. For wireless network RC4 is commonly used. These symmetric encryption

algorithms are very fast and they can easily generate in hardware because of their relatively

low complexity. For weak password, the symmetric encryption system can break. The

asymmetric encryption system is a setup of a key pair and these two keys are of use for

encryption and another one for decryption. One key can encrypt the data and another one can

decrypt the data. One key is for the public so that anyone can access it and another key is for

private use only so that only the receiver can access it. Asymmetric encryption algorithm has

some elements, plaintext, encryption algorithm, public and private keys, ciphers text and

decryption algorithm (Chen et al., 2015. Plain text is a text message which usesn the

algorithm. To conduct the mathematical operations the encryption algorithm is used. RSA is

very slow but it can establish a secured channel over a non-secure channel such as the

internet.

Web Security

Web security is very important in daily life in terms of online searching, emails, and

others. Web services have many problems like spam, viruses, and others. Some of the risks

that are present in web security such as internet protocol address identifying the computer and

some attacks are there such as SQL injection attacks (Abadi & Andersen, 2016). Tools of

web security are spike proxy, power fuzzer, sec point penetrator, net sparked, OWASP, Gama

sec, Nikto scanner, perimeter check. There are untrained users who set up unauthorized

6CRYPTOGRAPHY

networks and workstation. Lack of monitoring is there in every organization and these have

some loopholes in monitoring but there are some detection tools which can be used to secure

the system. For weak encryption, the wireless LAN may be harmful and the weak encryption

says that users cannot enable it for insufficient encryption standards. In wireless for

connecting to the network or listening to the network easily, the airwaves are used. And then

the result is that the data is encrypted with strong encryption (Androulaki et al., 2017). When

hackers try to decrypt the messages then they use WEP encryption. The hackers can easily

enter through circumventing firewalls in wireless LAN and allow other to come. Therefore

the private information lost for unsecured holes in the network.

Network Attacks

There are some cryptographic attacks which are implemented to damage the security

of cryptographic algorithms. These attacks are a part of cryptanalysis which is useful for

deciphering the encrypted data. There are six methods of cryptographic attacks basically

three of them are based on plain text methods and the rest of the three are based on cipher

text-based methods(Xu et al., 2015. A recognized plaintext attack can be explained as an

attack wherever the cryptanalyst creates a connection between the plaintext and the ciphertext

by accessing them. The ciphers text uses the process of ciphers such as the frequency

analysis, Caesar cipher can help in breaking the ciphers and the ciphers txt can only attack

where a cryptanalyst has the access to the cipher's text but does not have the access to the

plaintext (He & Zeadally, 2015). This type of attacks is commonly used against asymmetric

cryptography where the public key can be accessed by the cryptanalyst(Xu et al., 2015. The

chosen ciphertext attack is an attack where the ciphertext is chosen by the cryptanalyst and

able to find the perfect matching plain text. And this attack can be done by a decryption

oracle (Arnon-Friedman et al., 2018). In adaptively chosen plaintext attacks and adaptively

chosen ciphertext attacks based on the prior result, the next plain text and cipher text is

networks and workstation. Lack of monitoring is there in every organization and these have

some loopholes in monitoring but there are some detection tools which can be used to secure

the system. For weak encryption, the wireless LAN may be harmful and the weak encryption

says that users cannot enable it for insufficient encryption standards. In wireless for

connecting to the network or listening to the network easily, the airwaves are used. And then

the result is that the data is encrypted with strong encryption (Androulaki et al., 2017). When

hackers try to decrypt the messages then they use WEP encryption. The hackers can easily

enter through circumventing firewalls in wireless LAN and allow other to come. Therefore

the private information lost for unsecured holes in the network.

Network Attacks

There are some cryptographic attacks which are implemented to damage the security

of cryptographic algorithms. These attacks are a part of cryptanalysis which is useful for

deciphering the encrypted data. There are six methods of cryptographic attacks basically

three of them are based on plain text methods and the rest of the three are based on cipher

text-based methods(Xu et al., 2015. A recognized plaintext attack can be explained as an

attack wherever the cryptanalyst creates a connection between the plaintext and the ciphertext

by accessing them. The ciphers text uses the process of ciphers such as the frequency

analysis, Caesar cipher can help in breaking the ciphers and the ciphers txt can only attack

where a cryptanalyst has the access to the cipher's text but does not have the access to the

plaintext (He & Zeadally, 2015). This type of attacks is commonly used against asymmetric

cryptography where the public key can be accessed by the cryptanalyst(Xu et al., 2015. The

chosen ciphertext attack is an attack where the ciphertext is chosen by the cryptanalyst and

able to find the perfect matching plain text. And this attack can be done by a decryption

oracle (Arnon-Friedman et al., 2018). In adaptively chosen plaintext attacks and adaptively

chosen ciphertext attacks based on the prior result, the next plain text and cipher text is

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7CRYPTOGRAPHY

chosen by the cryptanalyst. Side channel attacks are another information which is commonly

used for physical implementation of a cryptographic algorithm. The cryptanalyst has the

access to the plaintext and the ciphertext and also to the cryptographic algorithm that has

been mentioned in the cryptographic attack. There are many side channels operators. The

open SSL is one the example of the side channels. In open SSL there are two types of

multiplication are done and those are done for equal sized words and normal multiplication

for unequal sized words (Pandey & Verma, 2015). A network using SSL TCP/IP connection

is done to detect the difference in the speed. Brute force attacks are the attacks which

generally attempts every possible key. The brute force attack is an attack which occurs in a

known plaintext or known ciphertext only. Meet in the middle attacks is generally used

against the cryptographic algorithm and the algorithms which uses multiple keys for

encryption.

The attack versus the duple DES is the best instance of men in the middle attack.

Double DES is better than the 56 bit DES because its strength is high. It is a known plaintext

attack and the meet in the middle attack generally do their work in the plain text and the

subsequent ciphertext. Different cryptanalysis and the linear cryptanalysis are similar attacks

and these are commonly used in the iterative symmetric key block cipher. The iterative cipher

works by collecting multiple rounds of encryption. In these two attacks, the cryptanalyst is

the way to changing the ciphertext between the round of encryption (Xu et al., 2015). The

main of the strong encryption is to create ciphertext which is shown randomly where a small

text change plain text can result in a random change in the resulting ciphertext. Linear

cryptanalysis is based upon the plain text attack and for this, they have to access a large

number of pairs of plain text and cipher text which are encrypted pairs which are unknown

key. It only observes the statistical analysis on the large amounts of ciphertext in the one

round of decryption. Differential cryptanalysis is commonly known as the chosen plaintext

chosen by the cryptanalyst. Side channel attacks are another information which is commonly

used for physical implementation of a cryptographic algorithm. The cryptanalyst has the

access to the plaintext and the ciphertext and also to the cryptographic algorithm that has

been mentioned in the cryptographic attack. There are many side channels operators. The

open SSL is one the example of the side channels. In open SSL there are two types of

multiplication are done and those are done for equal sized words and normal multiplication

for unequal sized words (Pandey & Verma, 2015). A network using SSL TCP/IP connection

is done to detect the difference in the speed. Brute force attacks are the attacks which

generally attempts every possible key. The brute force attack is an attack which occurs in a

known plaintext or known ciphertext only. Meet in the middle attacks is generally used

against the cryptographic algorithm and the algorithms which uses multiple keys for

encryption.

The attack versus the duple DES is the best instance of men in the middle attack.

Double DES is better than the 56 bit DES because its strength is high. It is a known plaintext

attack and the meet in the middle attack generally do their work in the plain text and the

subsequent ciphertext. Different cryptanalysis and the linear cryptanalysis are similar attacks

and these are commonly used in the iterative symmetric key block cipher. The iterative cipher

works by collecting multiple rounds of encryption. In these two attacks, the cryptanalyst is

the way to changing the ciphertext between the round of encryption (Xu et al., 2015). The

main of the strong encryption is to create ciphertext which is shown randomly where a small

text change plain text can result in a random change in the resulting ciphertext. Linear

cryptanalysis is based upon the plain text attack and for this, they have to access a large

number of pairs of plain text and cipher text which are encrypted pairs which are unknown

key. It only observes the statistical analysis on the large amounts of ciphertext in the one

round of decryption. Differential cryptanalysis is commonly known as the chosen plaintext

8CRYPTOGRAPHY

attack that is used to generate bonding in the ciphertexts which are occurred by two related

plaintexts. It is based on two inputs and two outputs of a cryptographic algorithm. By using

the XOR operation which is a Boolean exclusive to a plain text the plain text pair is created.

By using all related subkeys the cryptanalyst encrypts its XOR pair and the plain text. The

subkeys which become the random candidate key has the least random pattern. The birthday

attack is mainly used in the destruction of hashing algorithms (Bos et al., 2014). It is basically

based on the birthday paradox that based on the statement that if there are some numbers of

people in a room then the chances one are slightly greater than fifty present that two of them

will share their birthdays. The main motive of this is to remember the odds of any two

persons sharing their birthdays and it will be the odds of sharing the birthday with the

particular people (Krawczyk et al., 2014). This attack is mostly seen in MS5 or SHA1 to

attempt destructions in the hash function.

Conclusion

Thus concluding the topic it can be said that cryptography is one of the most

important concepts of the network and web security. In the recent future, the concept of the

cryptography can complex than before. This paper has elaborate on the cryptography that

how it works. There are several paths to attack every one of these systems. Nowadays two

different schemes are used, and one of them is symmetric schemes and the second one is

asymmetric schemes. In symmetric schemes, two parties have to get the same key to encrypt

the communication. And these have to be exchanged the key initially. And the concept of

asymmetric schemes both the parties have the public and private keys. One having the public

key can use it to encrypt a message for another one and the other having the private key

which is to be used for decrypt the message. Hence it can be said that the concept of the

cryptography must be used in a proper manner so that there is less number of any security

faults. One of the major thing that has to be noted that with the increase of the technology the

attack that is used to generate bonding in the ciphertexts which are occurred by two related

plaintexts. It is based on two inputs and two outputs of a cryptographic algorithm. By using

the XOR operation which is a Boolean exclusive to a plain text the plain text pair is created.

By using all related subkeys the cryptanalyst encrypts its XOR pair and the plain text. The

subkeys which become the random candidate key has the least random pattern. The birthday

attack is mainly used in the destruction of hashing algorithms (Bos et al., 2014). It is basically

based on the birthday paradox that based on the statement that if there are some numbers of

people in a room then the chances one are slightly greater than fifty present that two of them

will share their birthdays. The main motive of this is to remember the odds of any two

persons sharing their birthdays and it will be the odds of sharing the birthday with the

particular people (Krawczyk et al., 2014). This attack is mostly seen in MS5 or SHA1 to

attempt destructions in the hash function.

Conclusion

Thus concluding the topic it can be said that cryptography is one of the most

important concepts of the network and web security. In the recent future, the concept of the

cryptography can complex than before. This paper has elaborate on the cryptography that

how it works. There are several paths to attack every one of these systems. Nowadays two

different schemes are used, and one of them is symmetric schemes and the second one is

asymmetric schemes. In symmetric schemes, two parties have to get the same key to encrypt

the communication. And these have to be exchanged the key initially. And the concept of

asymmetric schemes both the parties have the public and private keys. One having the public

key can use it to encrypt a message for another one and the other having the private key

which is to be used for decrypt the message. Hence it can be said that the concept of the

cryptography must be used in a proper manner so that there is less number of any security

faults. One of the major thing that has to be noted that with the increase of the technology the

9CRYPTOGRAPHY

fraudsters are also trying to advance and hence proper care has to be taken care in order to

reduce network and web related attacks.

fraudsters are also trying to advance and hence proper care has to be taken care in order to

reduce network and web related attacks.

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10CRYPTOGRAPHY

References

Abadi, M., & Andersen, D. G. (2016). Learning to protect communications with

adversarial neural cryptography. arXiv preprint arXiv:1610.06918.

Androulaki, E., Cachin, C., De Caro, A., Kind, A., & Osborne, M. (2017, January).

Cryptography and protocols in hyper ledger fabric. In Real-World

Cryptography Conference.

Arnon-Friedman, R., Dupuis, F., Fawzi, O., Renner, R., & Vidick, T. (2018). Practical

device-independent quantum cryptography via entropy accumulation. Nature

communications, 9(1), 459.

Bennett, C. H., & Brassard, G. (2014). Quantum cryptography: Public key distribution

and coin tossing. Theor. Comput. Sci., 560(P1), 7-11.

Bos, J. W., Halderman, J. A., Heninger, N., Moore, J., Naehrig, M., & Wustrow, E.

(2014, March). Elliptic curve cryptography in practice. In International

Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data Security (pp. 157-175).

Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Chen, L., Chen, L., Jordan, S., Liu, Y. K., Moody, D., Peralta, R., ... & Smith-Tone,

D. (2016). Report on post-quantum cryptography. US Department of

Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology.

Cimato, S., & Yang, C. N. (Eds.). (2017). Visual cryptography and secret image

sharing. CRC press.

He, D., & Zeadally, S. (2015). An analysis of RFID authentication schemes for an

internet of things in healthcare environment using elliptic curve cryptography.

IEEE Internet of things journal, 2(1), 72-83.

References

Abadi, M., & Andersen, D. G. (2016). Learning to protect communications with

adversarial neural cryptography. arXiv preprint arXiv:1610.06918.

Androulaki, E., Cachin, C., De Caro, A., Kind, A., & Osborne, M. (2017, January).

Cryptography and protocols in hyper ledger fabric. In Real-World

Cryptography Conference.

Arnon-Friedman, R., Dupuis, F., Fawzi, O., Renner, R., & Vidick, T. (2018). Practical

device-independent quantum cryptography via entropy accumulation. Nature

communications, 9(1), 459.

Bennett, C. H., & Brassard, G. (2014). Quantum cryptography: Public key distribution

and coin tossing. Theor. Comput. Sci., 560(P1), 7-11.

Bos, J. W., Halderman, J. A., Heninger, N., Moore, J., Naehrig, M., & Wustrow, E.

(2014, March). Elliptic curve cryptography in practice. In International

Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data Security (pp. 157-175).

Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Chen, L., Chen, L., Jordan, S., Liu, Y. K., Moody, D., Peralta, R., ... & Smith-Tone,

D. (2016). Report on post-quantum cryptography. US Department of

Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology.

Cimato, S., & Yang, C. N. (Eds.). (2017). Visual cryptography and secret image

sharing. CRC press.

He, D., & Zeadally, S. (2015). An analysis of RFID authentication schemes for an

internet of things in healthcare environment using elliptic curve cryptography.

IEEE Internet of things journal, 2(1), 72-83.

11CRYPTOGRAPHY

Kosba, A., Miller, A., Shi, E., Wen, Z., & Papamanthou, C. (2016, May). Hawk: The

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