Report on Diabetes Mellitus Medicine

Added on - 21 Apr 2020

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Running head: DIABETES MEDICINEDIABETES MEDICINEName of the StudentName of the UniversityAuthor Note
1DIABETES MEDICINEDiabetes mellitus is a medical condition, where the body is either unable to produceinsulin or produce it in insufficient amounts. Absence or very poor levels of insulin gives rise toexcessive amounts of sugar in the blood. High sugar levels in the blood leads to serious healthconsequences. It causes damages to eyes, nerves, kidneys and also increases risk of heartattacks. Diabetes is of 2 types: Type 1 and Type 2. Type is the most prevalent and isresponsible for most of the diabetes cases (, 2017).Tresiba provides long- term control of elevated blood sugar levels in children and adults.It is given to individuals who are 1 year of age or above. Tresiba consists of an active ingredientnamed “insulin degludec”. It helps to regulate glucose metabolism and to reduce the glucoselevels in the blood by stimulating peripheral uptake of glucose. It also helps to control hepaticproduction of glucose. Once injected, “insulin degludec” forms stable multi hexamers in thesubcutaneous tissues. From the subcutaneous tissues, it is absorbed slowly into the systemiccirculation, thereby resulting in a prolonged period of action. It has a duration of action of 42hours. It is highly active in physiologic pH. A hexadecanedioic acid is added to the lysineresidue at position B29 of insulin, thereby allowing it to form multi-hexamers. A subcutaneousdepot of these multi hexamers is generated and they are slowly released into the systemiccirculation, resulting in its long-lasting action. It activates glucose uptake, stimulation ofglycogen synthesis in liver and muscle cells, lipolysis inhibition in fat cells and lipogenesis(metabolic fat formation) (, 2017).Tresiba binds to the insulin receptor (IR) and carries out its function. It is a membranebound receptor and belongs to a family of receptors called the tyrosine kinase receptor family. Ithelps to maintain a balance in glucose levels within the body. The signaling pathway involvestransfer of a phosphate group to the tyrosine residues of IR. IR then transfers a phosphategroup to the insulin receptor substrates (IRS-1). This in turn creates binding pockets for SH2(Src homology 2) or PTB (phosphotyrosine binding) domain containing proteins. One such
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