Health Promotion: Assessment

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Running head: HEALTH PROMOTIONHealth PromotionName of the Student:Name of the University:Author Note:
1HEALTH PROMOTIONAssessment Task 2Harm minimisation and smoking cessation among Indigenous cohortsIn today’s world, smoking is a major public health issue that calls for greater attentionand prudent intervention considering the adverse impacts it might exert upon the health status ofthe individuals who resort to such habits. There have been ongoing efforts to combat these badhabits across vulnerable population who might be most susceptible to face the wrath of thesmoking behaviour. One such interventional approach meant for mitigation of these adverseimpacts includes harm minimisation alongside other modality like that of smoking cessation. Thework byOber and Roche (1997) has laid focus on potentially utilizing the harm reductionprinciples in order to address the issue of smoking among Indigenous Australian population ofAboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, more frequently prevalent than non-indigenouspopulation. Thus, the opinion piece has clearly referred to the studied population thereby strivingto address the clearly focused question in course of its proceedings.The authors Ober and Roche (1997) in order to address their research questions havelooked for a plethora of papers that attended to similar causes and issues. Most of the papers thatthe authors reviewed were opinion pieces whereby the respective authors have highlighted onissues regarding addictive behaviors like that of alcoholism, smoking and drug abuse. Very fewpapers have been chosen that were in line with the topic of harm minimization in case ofsmokers exclusively. Moreover, there were no specific study designs for most of the journalarticles that were being referred to in the chosen article.A small-scale literature review of articles on the chosen topic will be conducted in orderto locate similar articles that are of particular significance in relation with the issue that is being
2HEALTH PROMOTIONconsidered for appraisal. An appropriate critical appraisal tool such as that of CASP (CriticalAppraisal Skills Program) tool will adopted to consider effectiveness and rigor to aid incomparison of quality of evidence between studies. Efforts will be directed to identify whetherthe findings of these articles validate or refute the recommendations of the provided articles.Google Scholar database will be utilized in order to gain understanding of the topic with searchterms like that of ‘smoking and Indigenous cohorts’ and ‘harm minimization principles ofsmoking in Indigenous cohorts’. Similar and or associated studies will be referred to foraccumulating pertinent data in liaison with the topic so that greater insight may be gained forgenerating better understanding.Study by McRobbie et al. (2012) revealed thatsmoking an electronic cigarette (EC)containing nicotine increased the chances of smoking cessation in long-term in contrast to ECwithout nicotine. Thus, effectiveness of ECs in long-term smoking cessation has been observed.Jha and Peto(2014) presented statistical records describing the global impacts associated withsmoking behavior, of quitting and in relation to taxing tobacco. Tobacco-attributed mortality asseen through national trends in UK, US and Poland has been depicted as well that furthernecessitated the utility of harnessing harm minimization strategies to combat the smokingadversities. Longer the smoking duration, shorter life expectancy was noted in the smokerindividuals.Taylor, Ussher and Faulkner (2007) focused on recommending specific doses ofexercise to manage the cigarette craving and withdrawal symptoms. Behavioral regulation inmitigation of smoking harm has thus been suggested. In another study by Gorber et al. (2009)emphasis has been laid on acquiring specific data related to accurate estimation of smokingstatus to drive suitable interventional strategies. Further, Fagerström and Bridgman (2014) statedthat smoking related health hazards and mortality rates might be mitigated through adoption of
3HEALTH PROMOTIONharm minimization techniques like that of implementation of licensed medicinal nicotineproducts through promotion of public health awareness.Reviewing the content of the work presented by Ober and Roche (1997) it may be saidthat in connection with the time in which it was published, efforts may be witnessed on theirparts to incorporate studies that are most relevant. Many studies that are being referred to in thechosen article have articulated certain vital aspects related to addictive nature of smoking inaddition to its adaptive and functional role. Discussions have also been made with respect tomotivators and reinforcers that encourage the uptake as well as continuation of smoking amongthe Aboriginals. Perspectives of these people with respect to health and their relevance tosmoking has been outlined as well in conjunction with reference to components of harmreduction strategies have also been described. Traditional practices of harm minimization havebeen emphasized throughout the discussion. However, the most recent advancements in relationto smoking cessation and reduction by utilizing electronic cigarettes have been largelyoverlooked as depicted through valid studies (McRobbie et al. 2012, Polosa et al. 2011). Theglobal effects of smoking as well as quitting or levying of taxes on smoking have also not beentaken into consideration, while other studies have highlighted this aspect for better understandingthe harm minimization issue in smoking (Jha and Peto 2014). No studies that have beenpublished in languages other than English has been included. Moreover, there is no clearindication as to which databases were explored for procuring the most suitable articles thatfurther delineates the reliability of the findings expressed in course of the original article.AuthorsOber and Roche in course of their review did little to assess the quality of theincluded studies. It is not evident in the proceedings of the article that rigor of the identifiedstudies were well evaluated making it difficult to rely on the facts and information stated in
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