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Two-Factor Theory Of Herzberg- Hygiene & Motivational Theory | Paper

   

Added on  2019-09-30

56 Pages9549 Words514 Views
Running head: IMPACT OF HYGIENE FACTORS ON INTENTION TO LEAVEImpact Of Hygiene Factorson Intention to LeaveMIHOME CARE

1IMPACT OF HYGIENE FACTORS ON INTENTION TO LEAVETable of ContentsAbstract............................................................................................................................................2Introduction......................................................................................................................................4Research Question........................................................................................................................6Research Objective and Aim........................................................................................................6Literature Review............................................................................................................................7Concept and Model Intention to Leave........................................................................................7Factors which impact the intention to leave.................................................................................9Research Methodology..................................................................................................................11Measurement..............................................................................................................................12Sampling....................................................................................................................................12Results and Discussions.................................................................................................................14Results........................................................................................................................................14Discussion and Implications..........................................................................................................42Discussion..................................................................................................................................42Conclusion.....................................................................................................................................45Recommendation for Future Research..........................................................................................46References......................................................................................................................................47

2IMPACT OF HYGIENE FACTORS ON INTENTION TO LEAVEAcknowledgementI would like to express my special thanks of gratitude to my teacher (Name of the teacher) aswell as our principal (Name of principal) who gave me the golden opportunity to do thiswonderful project on the topic: the impact pf hygiene factors on the employee retention in MIHome Care, who also helped me in doing a lot of Research and I have learnt a lot of new thingsfor which I am really thankful to the. Furthermore, I am also thankful to my parents to make meselect this project within a limited frame of time.

3IMPACT OF HYGIENE FACTORS ON INTENTION TO LEAVEAbstractThe two factor theory of Herzberg has divided the job satisfaction and motivation in twodifferent factors group called as Hygiene factors and Motivational factors. As per FredrickHerzberg, the factor of motivation is six factors of job contentment that involves possibility,advancement, responsibility, wok itself, recognition and achievement. Factors related to Hygieneinclude factors of Job Context that involve job security, relationship with status, subordinates,relationship with personal life, salary and peers, work conditions and supervision.Fundamentally, this theory divides the factors between extrinsic and intrinsic factors ofmotivation. Intrinsic motivators are called as factors of job content which define the things whichpeople mostly do in the work like their achievements and responsibilities (Acker, 2004). Thesefactors contribute greatly towards the level of satisfaction of job felt by an employee at his work.The factors in the context of job are extrinsic factors which the employees may not be able tocontrol properly as they are associated with the environment where people work as compared tothe nature of work. Herzberg call these sources as factors of job satisfaction. The reverse of thesatisfaction may not be termed as dissatisfaction as the two feelings may not be called asopposite to each other. As per the Herzberg statement, there are mainly two different portrayedneeds of humans. Thus the fundamental premise of theory of two factor involves that if themanager or employee tries to enhance the satisfaction of job and ultimately the performance ofthe job for any employee, they must address the factors which effect the satisfaction of job of theemployees. The direct approach involves working upon the job content or intrinsic factors asproviding the recognition and encouragement to the employees helps to make them feel morehappy and valued in the company and giving them high sense of responsibility and achievement.According to Herzberg, the most reasonable way for motivating the employee is to provide them

4IMPACT OF HYGIENE FACTORS ON INTENTION TO LEAVEchallenging work where he may easily assume his responsibility. If an employee does notpossess any responsibility towards his work then he may feel highly disassociated anddiscontented with his work and may feel no urge to fulfill the goals of his organization. Thus itis highly significant to involve the employees in the entire decision making and mostly at the jobdelegation and assignment. It will assist the employees of the organization to feel responsibleand will lead to high motivational level. The employees may consider the job satisfaction level inthe employees also. In order to approach the employees directly, the matter of discontentment inthe job place as well as to revitalize and try the environment, the employers must focus over thefactors of job context and the hygiene factors.

5IMPACT OF HYGIENE FACTORS ON INTENTION TO LEAVEIntroductionThe two factor theory of Herzberg has divided the job satisfaction and motivation in twodifferent factors group called as Hygiene factors and Motivational factors. As per FredrickHerzberg, the factor of motivation is six factors of job contentment that involves possibility,advancement, responsibility, wok itself, recognition and achievement. Factors related to Hygieneinclude factors of Job Context that involve job security, relationship with status, subordinates,relationship with personal life, salary and peers, work conditions and supervision.Fundamentally, this theory divides the factors between extrinsic and intrinsic factors ofmotivation. Intrinsic motivators are called as factors of job content which define the things whichpeople mostly do in the work like their achievements and responsibilities. These factorscontribute greatly towards the level of satisfaction of job felt by an employee at his work. Thefactors in the context of job are extrinsic factors which the employees may not be able to controlproperly as they are associated with the environment where people work as compared to thenature of work. Herzberg call these sources as factors of job satisfaction (Utley, et al., 1997).The reverse of the satisfaction may not be termed as dissatisfaction as the two feelings may notbe called as opposite to each other. As per the Herzberg statement, there are mainly two differentportrayed needs of humans. Thus the fundamental premise of theory of two factors involves thatif the manager or employee tries to enhance the satisfaction of job and ultimately theperformance of the job for any employee, they must address the factors which effect thesatisfaction of job of the employees. The direct approach involves working upon the job contentor intrinsic factors as providing the recognition and encouragement to the employees helps tomake them feel more happy and valued in the company and giving them high sense ofresponsibility and achievement. According to Herzberg, the most reasonable way for motivating

6IMPACT OF HYGIENE FACTORS ON INTENTION TO LEAVEthe employee is to provide them challenging work where he may easily assume his responsibility(Alshmemri, et al., 2017). If an employee does not possess any responsibility towards his workthen he may feel highly disassociated and discontented with his work and may feel no urge tofulfill the goals of his organization. Thus it is highly significant to involve the employees in theentire decision making and mostly at the job delegation and assignment. It will assist theemployees of the organization to feel responsible and will lead to high motivational level. Theemployees may consider the job satisfaction level in the employees also. In order to approach theemployees directly, the matter of discontentment in the job place as well as to revitalize and trythe environment, the employers must focus over the factors of job context and the hygienefactors. For instance, if the employers get the ergonomic expert for altering the workstations,they can decide for turning the desk of individuals to face any specific direction or can alsochange the height of chair of employers, or style or position of keyboard as well as the monitorof the computer (Zhang, et al., 2000). In the theory of two factor, the job dissatisfaction and jobsatisfaction are completely a separate directions. Thus while trying to make better a factor whicheffects the dissatisfaction caused for job, an extrinsic element, like the conditions of working, itmay not change the perception of employees of whether are they satisfied and contended withthe work they are doing (Dartev-Baah, et al., 2011). Hygienic factors, are considered theextrinsic conditions which encourage the employees to perform their best and feel committedtowards their work. The factors like relationship between immediate supervisors, subordinatesand colleagues, job security, benefits and perks, remuneration, organizational culture andworking conditions supervisors play an important role and make them stay within theorganization and grow with it. Motivation factors are intrinsic conditions that influence the levelof employee engagement. They have the ability to satisfy one’s own psychological needs

7IMPACT OF HYGIENE FACTORS ON INTENTION TO LEAVEincluding sense of achievement, personal and professional growth, proficiency and status in theorganization. The psychological fulfillment at any stage of an individual’s career plays a vitalrole in determining his or her involvements and commitment towards their work as well as theorganization. Employee engagement has been linked with almost every aspect of management insome or other form. Although there are not enough evidences to support a direct relationshipbetween them but several factors show that they are indirectly connected with each other. In thesame way, the hygiene and motivation factors have also been associated with employeemanagement (DeShields, et al., 2005). In fact, they have proven to be dependable andunswerving predictors of the level of involvement and engagement of employees towards theirjobs.Research QuestionThe research question formulated in this research paper is: What is the impact of Hygiene factoror how it influences the decision of the workers to quit their organization. Research Objective and AimThe purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of hygiene factors on an employee’s intentionto leave their organization. To enable the researcher to do this the many dimensions of hygienefactors will be looked into. These dimensions as explained by Herzberg include salary, jobsecurity, working conditions, co-workers and supervision. The researcher has opted to utilizequantitative method as the approach to examine the relationship that these hygiene factors havetowards contributing to an employee’s intention to quit.

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