The Internet of Things | Dissertation

Added on - 19 Sep 2019

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1.Introduction.(5marks)- 750Clarity of dissertation scope, aims, objectives and research question(s)2.Literature review.(20marks) – 3000 wordsUse and critical understanding of relevant literature/theory Project AimsThe Internet of Things can be considered as a novel paradigm shift in the field of IT. The termInternet of Things” is well-known shortly as IoT where the first word stands for “Internet” andthe second word stands for “Things”. Internet has been well-known as a global system of variousinterconnected computer networks that can be used as the standard Internet protocol suite(TCP/IP) and can easily be served as the billions of users present worldwide. Internet can bedefined as the network of networks consisting of the various public, private, academic, businessand government networks, ranging from local to global scope. This can easily be linked by aplethora of wireless, electronic, optical networking technologies etc. The internet has been ableto link a total of 100 countries making it easier to exchange data, opinions, news etc. If theInternet World Statistics were to be believed, as of 31stDecember 2011, there were over 2, 267,233, 742 Internet users worldwide representing that around 33% of the total population of theworld is using Internet.While discussing the “Things” in the Internet of Things, it can comprise of any person or objectwhich can easily be distinguished from the real world. The day to day objects will also includethe electronic devices that are encountered and used daily and other technologically advancedproducts like gadgets, equipment etc. The Internet of Things has matured from its origin and itcontinuing to be one of the most hyped concept in the IT world. The term Internet of Things(IoT) has gained momentum from the last decade and has attracted the attention of the world by
projecting the vision of the global infrastructure of enabling the anytime, anyplace connectivityfor anything along with providing a networked physical objects and not only for any one.Therefore, the Internet of Things can be considered as a global network allowing thecommunication between human-to-human, things-to-things and human-to-things providingunique identity to every object possible. The term IoT has been described as a world which canhelp in connecting as well as communicating with various human, things etc. in an intelligentfashion. The humans of our generation are concerned about being connected with one another interms of the electronic devices like tablets, computers, servers, smart phones, telephones etc.This is therefore termed as the Internet of Things, actuators, sensors that are embedded in thephysical objects from the roadways to the pacemakers- these are therefore linked using thewireless and wired networks which are often used with the same Internet IP connecting to theInternet. All these networks will be seen to churn out huge volumes of data flowing to thecomputers for the further analysis. It is seen that once the objects are able to sense theenvironment and then communicate accordingly, they are seen to become a tool forunderstanding the complexity of the program and therefore will respond to it in a very swiftmanner. It can be seen that the whole function is highly revolutionary and these physicalinformation systems on being deployed are able to work largely without the intervention of thehumans. The Internet of Things can refer to as the coding and networking of everyday objectsand things for rendering them to machine-readable and traceable individually on the Internet.The applications of the Internet of Things is seen to encompass the diverse sections likehealthcare, agriculture, retail, environment, infrastructure monitoring, supply chain management.The application of IoT in agriculture is seen to include the soil and plant monitoring, controlsystem monitoring of food chain supply. However, the networking of things is seen to cost-
effective and highly useful towards the end users who are willing to accept and wide scaleadoption of IOT. The IOT and its worldwide network of intercommunicating the devices willhelping integrating the pervasive computing along with the ambient intelligence. The ultimatepurpose of vision is to provide the basic facilities for new applications like transport safetysystems, energy monitoring etc. and helps in connecting to the objects of the world in both thesensory as well as the intelligent manner by combining the technological developments likewireless sensor networks and embedded systems. Various technologies like Machine to machineinterface, Energy harvesting technologies, Protocols of electronic communication, actuators,GPS, sensors, software etc. are seen to contribute to the IOT development.Smart AgricultureThe world of agriculture is undergoing intense industrialization and therefore it is highlyimportant to develop the agricultural informationizaton in a simultaneous manner. The worldagriculture has also been looking forwards to the Agricultural informationization which can beconsidered as a major force which will promote the agricultural development and the wholetransformation. Furthermore, it comes across as a corner stone for sustaining as well asmaintaining sound economic development. The past few decades have focused on theagricultural information service and infrastructure development.In order to improve the farm productivity in agriculture, there is a need to understand andforecast the crop performance under a variety of environmental soil, irrigation, fertilisationconditions. The same data-driven approach for the selection of crop can help in addressing theissues like climate change, societal concerns revolving around issues like fertilizers, animalwelfare,resource constraints (water, labour, and energy shortages),and environment impactingthe agricultural production.
According to the United Nations’ Food and Agriculture Organization, the food production isseen to be increased by 60 percent by 2050 in order to fulfil the feeding needs of the growingpopulation which is exceeding to reach over 9 billion. There is a urgent need of increased cropproductivity and can be considered as the cornerstone of any solution in order to meet the issuesrelated to meeting the food storage and other farm profitability issues. The art of smart farmingandsmart agriculture is solely dependent on the Internet of Things (IoT) and other related bigdata analytics in order to address the challenges using theelectronic monitoring of crops, soil,environment, irrigation conditions. This type of monitoring data will further help in analysingthe identification of specific crops or crop varieties in order to meet the productivity targets ofany special or particular form in the world.The Smart Agriculture is seen to have combined the capabilities and even analysed the datastreams which will in turn help the farmers in making highly informed decision-making intheir real-time as well as fast reaction towards the changes and various other unpredictableevents. For example, a study has combined the sensory data related to the soil fertility alongwith the various web services related to the weather forecasting. This way better decisions canbe made regarding the fertilization and irrigation of the crops.BIG DATA AND AGRICULTURENow-a-days the farming has become digitalized. Even the small scale farmers uses theinformation gathered from the precision agricultural equipment and from large datasets andprecision analytics. John Deere fits all of its tractors with sensors that is helpful in collectinginformation about the soil and crop conditions. This information helps the farmers to decidewhere to plant crops. The information collected from the John Deere tractors are not openlyaccessible by farmers. The use of large information sets and the digital tools for collecting,