Research Study on Leadership and Decision-making

Added on - 16 Sep 2019

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Running Head: Masters DissertationResearch on Leadershipand Sustainability
Masters Dissertation1ContentsIntroduction:...............................................................................................................................2Background of Research Topic:.............................................................................................3Background of the Organization:...........................................................................................8Thesis Statement:...................................................................................................................9Aims and Objectives:.................................................................................................................9Research Objectives:..............................................................................................................9Research Questions:.............................................................................................................10Scope of Research:...............................................................................................................12Limitations of Research:......................................................................................................13Literature Review:....................................................................................................................14Methodology:...........................................................................................................................30Data Collection Methods:....................................................................................................30Data Analysis Methods:.......................................................................................................31Results:.....................................................................................................................................35Conclusions:.............................................................................................................................50References:...............................................................................................................................55
Masters Dissertation2Introduction:Contained in this report are the findings from a research study that has been undertaken onthe topic of leadership, decision-making and their impacts on sustainability of anorganization. The research has endeavoured to determine the various traits and characteristicsof leadership in terms of the ways it differs between the managers in the public and privatesectors. The research has also attempted to determine the impacts of leadership traits onmanagerial decision-making along with finding out the impact of managerial leadership onthe sustainability of an organization. For this particular research study, the case of a medicaldevice group has been investigated. The company manufactures and sells various emergencydrugs and medical devices in Israel. The organization also markets its products in variousother countries like the US, China and a few other Asian countries. Three years back, thecompany has entered into a merger with one of its suppliers and after that some issues haveemerged related to the quality of some of the medical products those needed to be recalled.There was some lack of managerial leadership and effective decision-making that wasobserved after a new Chief Executive Officer (CEO) was appointed as the head of the newlyformed company.This decision was later on speculated to be non-effective and counter-productive for theorganization. This was because the current CEO belonged to a governmental organizationthat was a part of the non-profit seeking sector of the industry. Naturally, he lacked themanagerial leadership and decision-making skills required in a much competitive privatesector. Moreover, he was not a person from the medical background and therefore it wasquite obvious that he would not be able to provide an impactful and goal-oriented leadershipin this newly formed organization because the leadership skills nurtured and developed in thepublic sector are quite different than those needed to direct a private sector organization that
Masters Dissertation3is much more competitive, dynamic and has a totally different work culture. The research hasrevealed that qualities and traits of leaders tend to differ across the public and private sectorsbecause of several factors like difference in business objectives, work culture, employeerelationships and others. This makes it challenging and difficult for a person coming from thepublic sector to provide effective leadership in a private sector organization. This is the samescenario with the organization referred to in this test case.Background of Research Topic:The research has delved into various concepts of leadership, organizational decision-makingand organizational sustainability. It has tried to establish a link between the managementleadership, its impact on decision-making and the organizational sustainability. This part ofthe research discusses all those concepts in details.Organizational Leadership:Leadership is one of the key elements that determine the future of an enterprise. Everyenterprise requires effective and strong leadership for achieving optimum effectiveness.Organizational leadership encompasses human psychology along with prudent businesstactics. The leadership that is provided by the management personnel or the managers withinthe organization needs to be relevant to the current business dynamics. Leadership shouldensure that it is able to guide and motivate the subordinates in tough times of the organizationand yet be able to make the business grow and sustain amidst such crisis[ CITATION16P14 \l 16393 ].An effective leader should be able to implement proper control andcoordination among the group members such that they obey the instructions. In this regard itshould be understood that organizational leadership is not about dominating and dictating thesubordinates. It is more about offering guidance and direction to the subordinates such thatthey are able to understand their respective job responsibilities and able to achieve their
Masters Dissertation4individual goals and objectives along with those of the organization. Therefore, an efficientorganizational leader should be a selfless individual with the focus on being the mentor, rolemodel and the one that leads from the front. This will inspire the juniors to look up to himand respect him as an able leader in the organization[ CITATION Man1715 \l 16393 ].Different forms of Leadership:Leadership in organizational context can be of various types depending on the personalityand attitude of the leader. The most popular types of leadership are as follows:Autocratic-This type of leaders want to take the final control of taking theirdecisions. They do not believe in consulting with others. This type of leadershipencompasses use of power and authority on imposing decisions on subordinates[ CITATION Man1716 \l 16393 ].Democratic-The democratic leader is exactly the opposite of autocratic leader. Hewishes to consult the others before taking the final decision. He is the one who alwaysinvolves his subordinates in decision-making so that his juniors feel empowered andmotivated.Transactional-Transactional leaders believe in the policy of giving and taking. Asfor example, if the outcome of a job of a subordinate is positive for the department,then that employee will be rewarded. On the contrary, if his performance is poor andobjectives have not been achieved, then he might be penalized for such performance.Transformational-A transformational leader can be regarded as a facilitator ofchange in the organization. This type of leader mixes with his subordinates in a waythat it culminates into building of a strong and trusted relationship. This ultimatelyleads to higher levels of motivation for the employees and helps to bring changes intheir behaviour and attitudes to suit with the organizational change strategies.
Masters Dissertation5Laissez Faire-This type of leader does not believe in exercising direct control overhis subordinates. He does not offer continuous feedbacks as the employees areexpected to be committed towards their own responsibilities and it is expected thatthey do not require continued supervision. This can often lead to under-performanceof team members due to lack of adequate control and supervision.Situational-This type of leader believes in providing leadership based on theprevailing situation. This form of leadership considers the characteristics of the teammembers in the group those have to be led. It also accounts for the context of thefunctioning of the group in order to offer effective leadership depending on thesituation[ CITATION Mar1714 \l 16393 ].Differences of Leadership in Public and Private Sectors:Leadership traits are found to differ across the private and the public sectors. This is becausethere are differences in the goals and objectives of public and private sector organizations.Some of the major differences include the strategies such as, for a private sector firm, theemphasis is on generating the maximum possible financial returns on investments for thebenefit of the stakeholders[ CITATION Get17 \l 16393 ].Whereas, in case of the publicsector organizations the main business motive is to offer various products and services for thebenefit of the public and profitability is not the primary objective of this type of organization.Apart from this, the private sector organizations are found to have more clearly definedobjectives those are focused on enhancing profitability as compared to the public sectorenterprises where the clarity of goals and objectives of the employees is much lower. This isone of the prime reasons behind the form of leadership varying between the private and thepublic sectors. The other major area of difference between leadership traits in public andprivate sector organizations is the stakeholder expectations. In case of the public sectororganizations the major stakeholders are the public or the citizens of the country. Their
Masters Dissertation6expectation is to make the most efficient use of the tax money that they are paying to thegovernment. They expect products and services designed to suit their needs and demandsdirectly from the government. On the contrary, there are several stakeholders in respect of aprivate sector firm such as investors, suppliers, employees, customers, etc. So, handling thedemands of the stakeholders is much challenging and requires much intricate and variedstrategy to satisfy the demands of each one of them. Thus, leadership traits and characteristicsneed to differ in case of handling stakeholder needs in case of public and privateorganizations[ CITATION Joh132 \l 16393 ].Organizational Decision-making:Decision-making is one of the key functions of a manager in an organization. Some keystrategic decisions are undertaken by the management personnel and the others have to beundertaken by the managers on a regular basis in their respective departments within theenterprise. This decision-making process needs to be undertaken in several phasessequentially in order to ensure that it culminates into a prudent strategic decision in the end.There are seven steps involved in a prudent decision-making process. These can beenumerated as follows:Identifying the decision-This is the first step which involves the realization of themanager that a decision needs to be taken and then clearly defining the nature of suchdecision.Collecting relevant information-Before taking the decision it is prudent to gathersome relevant information regarding the particular decision in terms of itsconsequences and impacts on the organization and team members. Information can becollected from both internal and external sources.
Masters Dissertation7Determining the alternatives-In the process of searching for relevant information, itis possible to come across several alternatives. These alternative strategies need to belisted so that the best one can be selected at a later stage.Weighing the evidences-It is necessary for the manager to use his understanding andemotions for imagining the final outcomes of each of the alternatives as if they werecarried out from the beginning till the end. The alternatives those look to be the mostprofitable should be arranged as per their importance.Selecting the best alternative-At this stage the manager has to identify thatalternative that he thinks to be the best out of all those he has listed. He can evenchoose a combination of strategies if that is perceived to be the best strategy toundertake.Taking action-At this stage the manager is ready to execute his planned strategicdecision through implementation.Reviewing and evaluating the decision-In this final stage of the process ofstrategic-decision making, the manager has to evaluate the outcomes of his chosenstrategy. If it is observed that the strategy has not been able to achieve its desiredobjectives then the manager might have to repeat some of the earlier phases in orderto implement the next best alternative[ CITATION UMand \l 16393 ].Leadership and Organizational Sustainability:Modern organizational leadership should culminate into achieving long-term sustainability ofnot only the organization but also its various stakeholders. Therefore, managerial leadersshould play the role of sustainable leaders. It refers to the managerial decision-making andstrategies those are focused on the well-being of the various stakeholders such as employees,customers, investors, suppliers and others. The objective of this form of leadership is notrestricted to profit making and achieving of personal objectives only, but also achieving a
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