SPEO01-3 Dissertation on Analysis of Muscle Quality

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‘Muscle Quality: The analysis of musclequality in the Rectus Femoris of universityRugby and Football players’Dissertation SPEO01-3Reinaldo Camuimba – 1115230Reinaldo.Camuimba@study.beds.ac.ukSport Science and Coaching‘I declare that this is my own work and should this declaration be found to be untrue Iacknowledge that I may be guilty of committing an academic offence’LauraCharalambousi
Purpose of study:To identifying the components of muscle quality and identifywhich of the groupscompared out of the University of Bedfordshire rugbyandfootballers testedwhich onehave a higher level of muscle qualityout of theUniversity of Bedfordshire.Introduction:Superior muscle mass commonly develops higher muscle strength.Whereas, higher muscle mass is perceived on whether it may develop a better muscleQquality (Barbat-Artigas et. al. 2013). The use of ultrasound was seen as theappropriate method to examine ordinary and pathological muscle tissue, asitstheproducedimages produced aresimultaneous andnon-interference to the actual muscleandthe images are simultaneous(Pillen, 2011).Methods:10 participants from eachsportssportwere selected from a group ofuUniversity Rugby and Football players to participate in a peak force test of a seatedleg extension test.,thena good clear image was generated on the ultrasoundusing aVivid Ultrasound to assess the Cross-Sectional area of the rectus-femoris usingt awater-based gel at a gentle stable pacein order to generate a good clear image on theultrasound. Thus the equation to identify muscle quality in individuals would be toidentify the cross-sectional area of the muscle and x it by the force produced by theselected muscle.Thus the cross-sectional area of the muscle was identified and wasmultiplied by the force produced by the selected muscle for identifying the musclequality in individuals.Results:Results presented in this study show that there was a significant difference inmuscle quality production in rugby players and football players.(P>0.05.)P= 0.006using an independent sample T-test; (t= 1.072), df 18. Results also identified thatthere wasa significant difference between the values of muscle quality calculation onii
non-dominant leg of rugby and football players (P<0.05.)P= 0.000 using anindependent sample T-test; (t= -.029), df =18. The results also identified that therewas asignificant difference in the values of peak force generated in non-dominant legbetween rugby and football players. (P<0.05.)P= 0.005 using an independentsample T-test; (t= 0.125), df 18.lack of literacy and communal groups the revolts will remain isolated to these samegroups; Thus, the point emphasised by Tarrow is that only when the issue affectsmany people across town, across countries, who posses great organisational skills,that is when the issue will become one which is widely contested. Furthermore, therole of movement networks are also identified as integral in the outcome of the socialmovement as a whole1.Its outlined by Beach and Penderson how theories are researched. Their methods willhelp in relation to my question; as it will be ascertained which circumstances conveywhen group activism is more effective than individual action. Beach and Pendersonexplain the use of evidence and observation as well as sometimes having to useinference to fill in the gaps about theories we may believe to be true in real life2. It isexpressed that finding empirical evidence to support claims is extremely imperative,as making generalisations about cases rarely works when trying to understand themechanisms of why and how outcomes were reached3.Bloom’s argument is in agreement with that of Andrews, and states that the CRMplayed a major part in not only causing contention, but also raising awareness of theracial problems in American society. Bloom stresses that although PoliticalOpportunity Theory (POT) highlights the importance of macro structural shifts in1Tarrow, Sidney.Power in Movement: Social Movements and Contentious Politics .Second edition .Camebridge : Cambridge University Press , 1998. pp . 492Beach, D. and Pedersen, R.B. (2013)Process-tracing methods: Foundations and guidelines. United States:University of Michigan Press.3Beach, D. and Pedersen, R.B. (2013)Process-tracing methods: Foundations and guidelines. United States:University of Michigan Press.iii
making established authorities vulnerable to insurgent challenges; it is too generativeand thus somewhat insufficient as the only explanation of racial insurgency4.Theorising opportunity for groups falsely suggests that conditions for mass contentionare either propitious or not which would further assume that in times of quiescenceinsurgency is futile. Furthermore, political opportunity structuresAcknowledgements:Firstly, I would like to thank family and friendsthatwhohelped and supported methroughoutmy University journey. I would also like to show gratitude to all theparticipants thatparticipants whofound spare time to contribute their effort in mystudy. I would also like to show my upmost appreciation for the support that mydissertations tutor Laura Charalambous provided me throughout my studies. Lastly Iwould like to thank a very special personto me thatwhosupported me through myuniversity journeyandthrough my good times and hard times,butZainabwhohasstillbeen there to be my voice of reasoning and helpedme continue my studies.4Bloom, Joshua. "The Dynamics of Opportunity and Insurgent Practice: How Black Anti-colonialistsCompelled Truman to Advocate Civil Rights."American Sociological Review, 2015: 391-415.iv
Contents PreliminariesTitle PageiAbstractiiAcknowledgementsiv1.Chapter 1: Introduction2.Chapter 2: Literature Review3.Chapter 3: Method4.Chapter 4: Results5.Chapter 5: Discussion6.Chapter 6: Conclusions7.Chapter 7: References8.Chapter 8: Appendixv
Introduction:Superior muscle mass,may haveanoptimistic relationshiptowith thehigher musclestrength. Conversely, higher muscle mass canbefrequentlybelinked to having ahigher proportion of muscle quality. (Barbat-Artigas et. al. 2013). Muscle quality inan individual could be defined in three forms such as; muscle force created in themuscle per unit of the muscle size, the relationship between the size of the muscle andthe amount of power the muscle could produce (Barbat-Artigas et. al. 2012). MuscleQuality in the human body is assessed by the level of forced produced. Through thedevelopment of athletes, coaches would design suitable training programs for athletesin their sports so it would produce the form of muscle endurance and quality thatwould build an athlete’s perseverance through performance and training programsmanufactured for them by the coach.WhilstWhilean extensive quantity ofconsideration has been paid to the relationship between muscle quality and musclesize through athlete training,there are very few research studies that consider the truemeaning of muscle quality in athletes, neither scientists nor athletic coaches haveconsidered to look at the difference in muscle size and muscle quality. Though musclequality analysis in humans hasbeenlinked to a strong improvement in theirperformance. Studies have shown that great muscle quality is force generated by themuscle divided by thecross sectionalcross-sectionalarea of the muscle (Barbat-Artigas et. al. 2013), but who’s to say that athletes from other sports may not havegreat muscle quality from not having a great cross sectional muscle area, and that themuscle may not produce a great amount of force from the muscle? Within thestructure of the human anatomy it is thought that the greater quadriceps muscle massmay be, the stronger the muscle is. The human muscle mass extremely associatesitself to the purpose of the muscle (English et al, 2011). But not in every circumstance
does this truly transpire. Customarily the actual muscle doesn’tactuallyhave to be ofa superior size to display an excessive quantity of force. The theory behind this is duetothequality of muscle in the individual. They may have a sizeable smaller musclebut could also display a high amount of strength compared to an individual with alarger muscle size.The muscle Rectus Femoris is found in the quadriceps, the Rectus Femoris originatesat the hip - Anterior Inferior Iliac Spine, and inserts at the Quadriceps Tendon.ItconnectsConnectingitself from the hip to the knee to the hip and assists with hipflexion and extension of the knee on the extension or elevation of the knee. TheRectus Femoris contracts alongside the whole quadriceps.OfOnthe wholeQuadriceps the main muscle that helps on the contraction and tension of the muscle isthe Rectus Femoris.What this study aims tothe study aims tomeasureis measurethe cross sectional areaof the quadriceps femoris and if the parts correlate with muscle force within theQuadriceps muscle specifically on the Rectus Femoris muscle. Analysing the musclethrough ultrasound is an appropriate practice on picturing the standard andpathological muscle tissue.Thus the aim of this study is to analysewhat arethe true definition of muscle qualityandwhattype of sportswhichtendsto produce a greater muscle quality in athletes.By analysing athletes both from rugby and football, we would then distinguish whichsporting method produced a greater muscle quality in athletes.Rationale:It has been assumed that a larger muscle size always has a better musclequality due to the belief that if an
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