Dissertation on Analysis of Muscle Quality

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‘Muscle Quality: The analysis of musclequality in the Rectus Femoris of universityRugby and Football players’Dissertation SPEO01-3Reinaldo Camuimba – 1115230Reinaldo.Camuimba@study.beds.ac.ukSport Science and Coaching‘I declare that this is my own work and should this declaration be found to be untrue Iacknowledge that I may be guilty of committing an academic offence’LauraCharalambousi
Purpose of study:To identifying the components of muscle quality and identifywhich of the groups compared out of the University of Bedfordshire rugby andfootballers tested which one have a higher level of muscle quality.Introduction:Superior muscle mass commonly develops higher muscle strength.Whereas, higher muscle mass is perceived on whether it may develop a better muscleQuality (Barbat-Artigas et. al. 2013). The use of ultrasound was seen as theappropriate method to examine ordinary and pathological muscle tissue, as its imagesproduced are non-interference to the actual muscle and the images are simultaneous(Pillen, 2011).Methods:10 participants from each sports were selected from a group of universityRugby and Football players to participate in a peak force test of a seated leg extensiontest, then using a Vivid Ultrasound to assess the Cross-Sectional area of the rectus-femoris usingt a water-based gel at a gentle stable pace in order to generate a goodclear image on the ultrasound. Thus the equation to identify muscle quality inindividuals would be to identify the cross-sectional area of the muscle and x it by theforce produced by the selected muscle.Results:Results presented in this study show that there was a significant difference inmuscle quality production in rugby players and football players.(P>0.05.)P= 0.006using an independent sample T-test; (t= 1.072), df 18. Results also identified thatthere wasa significant difference between the values of muscle quality calculation onnon-dominant leg of rugby and football players (P<0.05.)P= 0.000 using anindependent sample T-test; (t= -.029), df =18. The results also identified that therewas asignificant difference in the values of peak force generated in non-dominant legbetween rugby and football players. (P<0.05.)P= 0.005 using an independentsample T-test; (t= 0.125), df 18.ii
lack of literacy and communal groups the revolts will remain isolated to these samegroups; Thus, the point emphasised by Tarrow is that only when the issue affectsmany people across town, across countries, who posses great organisational skills,that is when the issue will become one which is widely contested. Furthermore, therole of movement networks are also identified as integral in the outcome of the socialmovement as a whole1.Its outlined by Beach and Penderson how theories are researched. Their methods willhelp in relation to my question; as it will be ascertained which circumstances conveywhen group activism is more effective than individual action. Beach and Pendersonexplain the use of evidence and observation as well as sometimes having to useinference to fill in the gaps about theories we may believe to be true in real life2. It isexpressed that finding empirical evidence to support claims is extremely imperative,as making generalisations about cases rarely works when trying to understand themechanisms of why and how outcomes were reached3.Bloom’s argument is in agreement with that of Andrews, and states that the CRMplayed a major part in not only causing contention, but also raising awareness of theracial problems in American society. Bloom stresses that although PoliticalOpportunity Theory (POT) highlights the importance of macro structural shifts inmaking established authorities vulnerable to insurgent challenges; it is too generativeand thus somewhat insufficient as the only explanation of racial insurgency4.Theorising opportunity for groups falsely suggests that conditions for mass contention1Tarrow, Sidney.Power in Movement: Social Movements and Contentious Politics .Second edition .Camebridge : Cambridge University Press , 1998. pp . 492Beach, D. and Pedersen, R.B. (2013)Process-tracing methods: Foundations and guidelines. United States:University of Michigan Press.3Beach, D. and Pedersen, R.B. (2013)Process-tracing methods: Foundations and guidelines. United States:University of Michigan Press.4Bloom, Joshua. "The Dynamics of Opportunity and Insurgent Practice: How Black Anti-colonialistsCompelled Truman to Advocate Civil Rights."American Sociological Review, 2015: 391-415.iii
are either propitious or not which would further assume that in times of quiescenceinsurgency is futile. Furthermore, political opportunity structuresAcknowledgements:Firstly, I would like to thank family and friends that helped and supported me throughmy University journey. I would also like to show gratitude to all the participants thatfound spare time to contribute their effort in my study. I would also like to show myupmost appreciation for the support that my dissertations tutor Laura Charalambousprovided me throughout my studies. Lastly I would like to thank a very special personto me that supported me through my university journey through my good times andhard times but Zainab has still been there to be my voice of reasoning and help mecontinue my studies.iv
Contents PreliminariesTitle PageiAbstractiiAcknowledgementsiv1.Chapter 1: Introduction2.Chapter 2: Literature Review3.Chapter 3: Method4.Chapter 4: Results5.Chapter 5: Discussion6.Chapter 6: Conclusions7.Chapter 7: References8.Chapter 8: Appendixv
Introduction:Superior muscle mass, may have optimistic relationship to higher muscle strength.Conversely, higher muscle mass can be frequently linked to having a higherproportion of muscle quality. (Barbat-Artigas et. al. 2013). Muscle quality in anindividual could be defined in three forms such as; muscle force created in the muscleper unit of the muscle size, the relationship between the size of the muscle and theamount of power the muscle could produce (Barbat-Artigas et. al. 2012). MuscleQuality in the human body is assessed by the level of forced produced. Through thedevelopment of athletes, coaches would design suitable training programs for athletesin their sports so it would produce the form of muscle endurance and quality thatwould build an athlete’s perseverance through performance and training programsmanufactured for them by the coach. Whilst an extensive quantity of considerationhas been paid to the relationship between muscle quality and muscle size throughathlete training there are very few research studies that consider the true meaning ofmuscle quality in athletes, neither scientists nor athletic coaches have considered tolook at the difference in muscle size and muscle quality. Though muscle qualityanalysis in humans has linked to a strong improvement in their performance. Studieshave shown that great muscle quality is force generated by the muscle divided by thecross sectional area of the muscle (Barbat-Artigas et. al. 2013), but who’s to say thatathletes from other sports may not have great muscle quality from not having a greatcross sectional muscle area, and that the muscle may not produce a great amount offorce from the muscle? Within the structure of the human anatomy it is thought thatthe greater quadriceps muscle mass may be, the stronger the muscle is. The humanmuscle mass extremely associates itself to the purpose of the muscle (English et al,2011). But not in every circumstance does this truly transpire. Customarily the actual
muscle doesn’t actually have to be of a superior size to display an excessive quantityof force. The theory behind this is due to quality of muscle in the individual. Theymay have a sizeable smaller muscle but could also display a high amount of strengthcompared to an individual with a larger muscle size.The muscle Rectus Femoris is found in the quadriceps, the Rectus Femoris originatesat the hip - Anterior Inferior Iliac Spine, and inserts at the Quadriceps Tendon.Connecting itself from the hip to the knee to the hip and assists with hip flexion andextension of the knee on the extension or elevation of the knee. The Rectus Femoriscontracts alongside the whole quadriceps. Of the whole Quadriceps the main musclethat helps on the contraction and tension of the muscle is the Rectus Femoris.What this study aims to measure is measure the cross sectional area of the quadricepsfemoris and if the parts correlate with muscle force within the Quadriceps musclespecifically on the Rectus Femoris muscle. Analysing the muscle through ultrasoundis an appropriate practice on picturing the standard and pathological muscle tissue.Thus the aim of this study is to analyse what are the true definition of muscle qualityand what type of sports tends to produce a greater muscle quality in athletes. Byanalysing athletes both from rugby and football, we would then distinguish whichsporting method produced a greater muscle quality in athletes.Rationale: Initially the assumption of a larger muscle size would mean a better formof muscle quality. This assumption was determined by assuming that if an individualattains a larger muscle size automatically they would generate a great amount of forcefrom that specific muscle. this study will attempts to identify the components ofmuscle quality and also attempt to identify from the two sports being comparedwhich one of them helps athletes have a greater muscle quality in the rectus femoris.
Hypothesis:It is hypothesised that the university rugby players from this study willshow a significant difference in muscle quality in the Rectus Femoris in comparisonto the muscle quality in the university footballers.Literature review:What is muscle quality:There are three major factors that define muscle quality; thisincludes muscle force generated per unit of muscle quantity, and the muscle capacityof muscle size in relation to how much power the muscle produces on its own. Thus,calculating the quality in muscle could have the involvement of: muscle size, muscleforce and muscle power produced (Barbat-Artigas et. al. 2012).Muscle mass:The magnitude of muscle that makes the muscle or muscle group.Muscle mass may differ on the form and size (Kent, 1998). There are various formsof methods on measuring muscle mass in humans. The expense and accessibility ofthe methods can regulate the most reliable method appropriate to when using forScientific Research or clinical practice (Barbat-Artigas et. al. 2012). Heymsfield et.Al. 2010, listed various different methods on how to test muscle mass such as forexample ultrasound figure imaging. There are three image methods on how toevaluate muscle mass or lean muscle mass, these methods are CT Scanning, MRI andDual-energy X-ray Absorbtion (DXA). From recent studies it indicates that CTscanning and MRI are the highest standard in the analysis of muscle mass, while DXAhas an ease of access for both sports specific research and clinical practice. The use ofmuscle Ultrasound scanning is another technique used to analyse muscle mass inhumans. With this method it provides evidence of penation angle in the muscle(Barbat-Artigas et. al. 2012). Bio-impendence testing views the quantity of fat andlean muscle mass in the body. But however, the accessibility and cost of this method
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