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Comparing Muscle Size and Strength in Rugby and Football Players

   

Added on  2019-09-26

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‘Muscle Quality: The analysis of musclequality in the Rectus Femoris of universityRugby and Football players’Dissertation SPEO01-3 Reinaldo Camuimba – 1115230 Reinaldo.Camuimba@study.beds.ac.ukSport Science and Coaching ‘I declare that this is my own work and should this declaration be found to be untrue Iacknowledge that I may be guilty of committing an academic offence’ Laura Charalambousi
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Purpose of study: To identifying the components of muscle quality and identify which of the groups compared out of the University of Bedfordshire rugby and footballers tested which one have a higher level of muscle quality.Introduction:Superior muscle mass commonly develops higher muscle strength. Whereas, higher muscle mass is perceived on whether it may develop a better muscle Quality (Barbat-Artigas et. al. 2013). The use of ultrasound was seen as the appropriate method to examine ordinary and pathological muscle tissue, as its images produced are non-interference to the actual muscle and the images are simultaneous (Pillen, 2011). Methods: 10 participants from each sports were selected from a group of university Rugby and Football players to participate in a peak force test of a seated leg extensiontest, then using a Vivid Ultrasound to assess the Cross-Sectional area of the rectus-femoris using t a water-based gel at a gentle stable pace in order to generate a good clear image on the ultrasound. Thus the equation to identify muscle quality in individuals would be to identify the cross-sectional area of the muscle and x it by the force produced by the selected muscle.Results:Results presented in this study show that there was a significant difference inmuscle quality production in rugby players and football players. (P>0.05.) P = 0.006 using an independent sample T-test; (t= 1.072), df 18. Results also identified that there was a significant difference between the values of muscle quality calculation on non-dominant leg of rugby and football players (P<0.05.) P = 0.000 using an independent sample T-test; (t= -.029), df =18. The results also identified that there was a significant difference in the values of peak force generated in non-dominant leg between rugby and football players. (P<0.05.) P = 0.005 using an independent sample T-test; (t= 0.125), df 18.ii
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lack of literacy and communal groups the revolts will remain isolated to these same groups; Thus, the point emphasised by Tarrow is that only when the issue affects many people across town, across countries, who posses great organisational skills, that is when the issue will become one which is widely contested. Furthermore, the role of movement networks are also identified as integral in the outcome of the social movement as a whole1.Its outlined by Beach and Penderson how theories are researched. Their methods will help in relation to my question; as it will be ascertained which circumstances convey when group activism is more effective than individual action. Beach and Penderson explain the use of evidence and observation as well as sometimes having to use inference to fill in the gaps about theories we may believe to be true in real life2. It is expressed that finding empirical evidence to support claims is extremely imperative, as making generalisations about cases rarely works when trying to understand the mechanisms of why and how outcomes were reached3.Bloom’s argument is in agreement with that of Andrews, and states that the CRM played a major part in not only causing contention, but also raising awareness of the racial problems in American society. Bloom stresses that although Political Opportunity Theory (POT) highlights the importance of macro structural shifts in making established authorities vulnerable to insurgent challenges; it is too generative and thus somewhat insufficient as the only explanation of racial insurgency4. Theorising opportunity for groups falsely suggests that conditions for mass contention1 Tarrow, Sidney. Power in Movement: Social Movements and Contentious Politics . Second edition . Camebridge : Cambridge University Press , 1998. pp . 492Beach, D. and Pedersen, R.B. (2013)Process-tracing methods: Foundations and guidelines. United States: University of Michigan Press.3Beach, D. and Pedersen, R.B. (2013)Process-tracing methods: Foundations and guidelines. United States: University of Michigan Press.4 Bloom, Joshua. "The Dynamics of Opportunity and Insurgent Practice: How Black Anti-colonialists Compelled Truman to Advocate Civil Rights." American Sociological Review, 2015: 391-415.iii
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are either propitious or not which would further assume that in times of quiescence insurgency is futile. Furthermore, political opportunity structuresAcknowledgements:Firstly, I would like to thank family and friends that helped and supported me throughmy University journey. I would also like to show gratitude to all the participants that found spare time to contribute their effort in my study. I would also like to show my upmost appreciation for the support that my dissertations tutor Laura Charalambous provided me throughout my studies. Lastly I would like to thank a very special personto me that supported me through my university journey through my good times and hard times but Zainab has still been there to be my voice of reasoning and help me continue my studies. iv
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Contents Preliminaries Title Page iAbstract iiAcknowledgements iv1.Chapter 1: Introduction 2.Chapter 2: Literature Review3.Chapter 3: Method4.Chapter 4: Results 5.Chapter 5: Discussion 6.Chapter 6: Conclusions 7.Chapter 7: References 8.Chapter 8: Appendix v
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Introduction:Superior muscle mass, may have optimistic relationship to higher muscle strength. Conversely, higher muscle mass can be frequently linked to having a higher proportion of muscle quality. (Barbat-Artigas et. al. 2013). Muscle quality in an individual could be defined in three forms such as; muscle force created in the muscle per unit of the muscle size, the relationship between the size of the muscle and the amount of power the muscle could produce (Barbat-Artigas et. al. 2012). Muscle Quality in the human body is assessed by the level of forced produced. Through the development of athletes, coaches would design suitable training programs for athletes in their sports so it would produce the form of muscle endurance and quality that would build an athlete’s perseverance through performance and training programs manufactured for them by the coach. Whilst an extensive quantity of consideration has been paid to the relationship between muscle quality and muscle size through athlete training there are very few research studies that consider the true meaning of muscle quality in athletes, neither scientists nor athletic coaches have considered to look at the difference in muscle size and muscle quality. Though muscle quality analysis in humans has linked to a strong improvement in their performance. Studies have shown that great muscle quality is force generated by the muscle divided by the cross sectional area of the muscle (Barbat-Artigas et. al. 2013), but who’s to say that athletes from other sports may not have great muscle quality from not having a great cross sectional muscle area, and that the muscle may not produce a great amount of force from the muscle? Within the structure of the human anatomy it is thought that the greater quadriceps muscle mass may be, the stronger the muscle is. The human muscle mass extremely associates itself to the purpose of the muscle (English et al, 2011). But not in every circumstance does this truly transpire. Customarily the actual
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muscle doesn’t actually have to be of a superior size to display an excessive quantity of force. The theory behind this is due to quality of muscle in the individual. They may have a sizeable smaller muscle but could also display a high amount of strength compared to an individual with a larger muscle size. The muscle Rectus Femoris is found in the quadriceps, the Rectus Femoris originates at the hip - Anterior Inferior Iliac Spine, and inserts at the Quadriceps Tendon. Connecting itself from the hip to the knee to the hip and assists with hip flexion and extension of the knee on the extension or elevation of the knee. The Rectus Femoris contracts alongside the whole quadriceps. Of the whole Quadriceps the main muscle that helps on the contraction and tension of the muscle is the Rectus Femoris. What this study aims to measure is measure the cross sectional area of the quadriceps femoris and if the parts correlate with muscle force within the Quadriceps muscle specifically on the Rectus Femoris muscle. Analysing the muscle through ultrasound is an appropriate practice on picturing the standard and pathological muscle tissue.Thus the aim of this study is to analyse what are the true definition of muscle quality and what type of sports tends to produce a greater muscle quality in athletes. By analysing athletes both from rugby and football, we would then distinguish which sporting method produced a greater muscle quality in athletes. Rationale: Initially the assumption of a larger muscle size would mean a better form of muscle quality. This assumption was determined by assuming that if an individual attains a larger muscle size automatically they would generate a great amount of forcefrom that specific muscle. this study will attempts to identify the components of muscle quality and also attempt to identify from the two sports being compared which one of them helps athletes have a greater muscle quality in the rectus femoris.
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Hypothesis: It is hypothesised that the university rugby players from this study will show a significant difference in muscle quality in the Rectus Femoris in comparison to the muscle quality in the university footballers. Literature review:What is muscle quality: There are three major factors that define muscle quality; thisincludes muscle force generated per unit of muscle quantity, and the muscle capacity of muscle size in relation to how much power the muscle produces on its own. Thus, calculating the quality in muscle could have the involvement of: muscle size, muscle force and muscle power produced (Barbat-Artigas et. al. 2012). Muscle mass: The magnitude of muscle that makes the muscle or muscle group. Muscle mass may differ on the form and size (Kent, 1998). There are various forms of methods on measuring muscle mass in humans. The expense and accessibility of the methods can regulate the most reliable method appropriate to when using for Scientific Research or clinical practice (Barbat-Artigas et. al. 2012). Heymsfield et. Al. 2010, listed various different methods on how to test muscle mass such as for example ultrasound figure imaging. There are three image methods on how to evaluate muscle mass or lean muscle mass, these methods are CT Scanning, MRI and Dual-energy X-ray Absorbtion (DXA). From recent studies it indicates that CT scanning and MRI are the highest standard in the analysis of muscle mass, while DXAhas an ease of access for both sports specific research and clinical practice. The use ofmuscle Ultrasound scanning is another technique used to analyse muscle mass in humans. With this method it provides evidence of penation angle in the muscle (Barbat-Artigas et. al. 2012). Bio-impendence testing views the quantity of fat and lean muscle mass in the body. But however, the accessibility and cost of this method
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