Nursing Assignment: Diabetes Mellitus Case Study

Added on - 06 Jun 2020

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Nursing case study/DIABETESMELLITUS CASE STUDY
TABLE OF CONTENTSQ1....................................................................................................................................................1Q2....................................................................................................................................................1Q3....................................................................................................................................................4Q4....................................................................................................................................................6REFERENCES................................................................................................................................7
Q1.Due to deficiency of insulin, the body metabolizes triglycerides and amino acids forenergy instead of glucose. This unrestrained lipolysis causes increase in the serum levels ofglycerol and free fatty acids. Excess of glucagon stimulates hepatic gluconeogenesis andmitochondrial conversion of free fatty acids into ketones. It is here when ketogenesis proceedswithout the presence of insulin leading to production of ketoacids such as acetoacetic acid andbeta- hydroxybutyric acid (Chen, Magliano & Zimmet, 2011). These are strong organic acids andleads to the creation of metabolic acidosis. Due to insulin deficiency, hyperglycaemia leads toosmotic diuresis. This is marked by urinary losses of eater and electrolytes. The additional lossesof sodium and potassium are obligated by excretion of ketones in urine. Diabetic ketoacidosisproduces symptoms of hyperglycaemia along with vomiting, abdominal pain and nausea. Patientmay become tachycardic, hypotensive and lethargic. Kussmaul respiration is also a symptomalong with fruity breath.Q2.DifferenceType 1 Diabetes MellitusType 2 Diabetes MellitusPathophysiologyThere is destruction of beta cellsin the pancreas. The pancreasdemonstrate lymphocyticinfiltration. Insulin deficiency iscaused due to destruction ofinsulin- secreting cells of isletsof Langerhans (Sacks & et.al.,2011). As a result of this, theThis is a long term metabolicdisorder and is marked by high levelof sugar in blood, insulin resistanceand lack of insulin in the body(Alonso-Magdalena, Quesada &Nadal). There is insufficientproduction of insulin from beta cellsmuscles, liver and other tissues1
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