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Running head: PARENTING AND FAMILY ISSUESParenting and Family IssuesName of studentName of universityAuthor note
PARENTING AND FAMILY ISSUES1Task 1a.A child’s development is known to be affected by the social relationships and theenvironment around. Theoretical frameworks help in understanding this key association in asuitable manner. Ecological systems model is a significant approach toward answering thequestion of how the social environment and ecology influence a child’s development. Thepresent essay describes a child’s ecology as proposed by Urie Bronfenbrenner’s EcologicalSystem Model.Urie Bronfenbrenner, a famous American psychologist, formulated the Ecological systemmodel for explaining how the inherent qualities of a child and the environment engage ininteraction for influencing the growth and development of the child. The model organizes thedevelopment of a child into five distinct levels of external influences; microsystem, mesosystem,exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem. By studying these systems, one can understand thediversity of influences that in association with each other has a major impact on the developmentof the child (Vélez-Agosto et al., 2017). Microsystem refers to the most immediate and smallestenvironment presented to a child. It comprises of family, school, neighborhood, religiousinstitutions and peers. Interactions within the microsystem involve personal relationships withclassmates, caregivers, teachers and family members. Supportive and nurturing relationships andinteractions lead to the healthy development of a child. The mesosystem defines the interactionbetween different microsystems within which the development of a child is promoted. Inessence, it is a system of microsystems and involves interactions between teachers and family for
PARENTING AND FAMILY ISSUES2example. A child’s development is positively influenced through coherence and harmony if theparents are actively involved in the relationship of a child with his peers (Sallis et al., 2015).The exosystems concern the associations existing between multiple settings in which achild does not have an active role. For example, a child’s experience might be influenced by theexperiences of parents at the workplace. If both the parents are working for long hours andunable to spend quality time with the child, the development might be influenced in an undesiredmanner. Macrosystem clearly articulates the culture in which a child is being brought up. Thisincludes socioeconomic status, ethnicity and heritage. A child and his parents are a part of a largecultural context, and it has repeatedly been pointed out that member of a particular cultural groupshares a common heritage, identity, and value. Further, the macrosystem undergoes evolutionover time. Lastly, chronosystem is the pattern of transitions and environmental events over time.It adds the valuable dimension of time, indicating constancy and change in the environment ofthe child. For example, divorces of parents are one transition and research highlights that thenegative impact of divorce on a child is drastic (Walker & Pattison, 2016).In conclusion, it is found that a child is to be studied in the context of multipleenvironments he is subjected to. A child is simultaneously enmeshed in different ecosystems,wherein, the most intimate one is the home ecology, and the most outward one is the social andcultural system. Each of the systems interacts with each other to influence all aspects of a child’slife. Awareness of these precise contexts can sensitize humans to changes in the behavior andresponses of a child.
PARENTING AND FAMILY ISSUES3b.Socialization for a child is a process by which human beings actively acquire the set ofskills, knowledge and character traits that help him to participate as an effective member of thesociety. The process of socialization begins at birth and psychologists point out that the processis reciprocal and dynamic. Socialization includes education, social development, and child-rearing, and the outcomes are unique for each child (Furnham & Milner, 2017). The presentessay discusses how the elements of the Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological System Model influence achild’s socialization process.The ecological model of Bronfenbrenner's has the proposition that socialization of a childtakes place in multiple contexts and the child is to be imaged place in the center of concentriccircles, modeled by layers of multiple contexts. The child is not to be considered as solely apassive recipient in this whole interrelated process. Rather, there is a direct interaction of thechild with the humans in the systems. The elements of the model, namely microsystem,mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem and chronosystem are the driving factors for values,attitudes, motives and attributes acquired by the child. Values are the beliefs perceived asimportant or desirable. Attitudes are the tendencies to respond in a certain manner to particularsituations. Motives are the emotions and need causing a child to act in a certain way. Attributesare the explanations laid out for the performance. For a child, the primary socialization agentsare family, school, community culture and peers. The theory of Bronfenbrenner informs thesesocialization agents that influence child growth and development (Perry‐Jenkins & Wadsworth2017).