Accessibility Options for Quadriplegics in Computing


Added on  2019-09-23

5 Pages2151 Words95 Views
QuadriplegicsQ1.Quadriplegics are the people who are partially or completely paralysed. In this paralysistheir both arms and legs are paralysed. This paralytic attack occurs due to an injury inspinal cord or any disease in the region of the neck.Quadriplegia is a disease which is also Tetraplegia, that is further defined as a state ofparalysis which is caused due to illness or injury. This illness or injury can result inpartial or total loss of limbs control. Paraplegia is similar to quadriplegia but in this casearms of a human are not affected Tetraparesis or quadriparesis, on the other hand, meansmuscle weakness affecting all four limbs [6].There are many causes for the state of quadriplegia like:1)Car accidents2)Work related injuries like fall from high rise, blast injuries and electric shockinjuries.3)Medical causes like infectious or parasitic causes such as spinal cord abcess ortuberculous abcess [7].It has been seen that many researchers had worked on the grounds of accessibility optionsfor quadriplegics so that they can easily access the computing devices. The main keybehind this is that a PC is generally adaptable to different inputs and outputs.Quadriplegics are currently participating in the field of computing with limitedaccessibility options with a rapid development and evaluation of a head controlled HCI(Human Computer Interface) that has the functions just like a traditional keyboard ormouse [1].The projects of HCI are meant for people who have the disability either physical,cognitive, sensory or communicative. This technology of HCI assists the quadriplegics inthe accessing of computing devices.Some of the accessibility options with the help of which quadriplegics can easilyparticipate in the field of computing are as follows:1) AbleNet’s Impulse System-: In this type of system there is a small device that is fittedto the user’s skin which has replaced the old traditional keyboard and mouse. This smalldevice uses the technology of electromyography through which small electrical impulsescan be sent from the brain to the muscle by sensing, amplifying and transmitting them[2].2) Eyegaze Edge-: In this technology eye motion is translated with the help of a smallexternal processing unit into a screen action thereby using a high-speed infrared cameramounted under system’s monitor [2].Some other assistive devices which are very helpful for quadriplegics are such as:1) Personal mobility aids like wheelchairs for moving in and out.2) Telephone aids which are inbuilt with vocal quads that can be used alone.3) Appliance controllers which enables quads to switch on or off the equipment’s withoutanyone help on his or her alone [8].Q2. The most common input which the people with quadriplegics have that further helpsthem to develop methods to help quadriplegics in computing are as follows:1) Switches, joysticks and trackballs which are activated with motion of a body part.Such devices helps quadriplegics in controlling the video games more effectively oncomputers. They allow to move the cursor around the screen just like a mouse wheneverit is required.

2) Eye Controlled Mouse Movement is a technology where a clever device known asGT3D that is invented by British scientists is used which has the ability to control thecomputers with the movement of eyes. Using this device quadriplegics can control theirmouse movements simply by moving their eyes.3) Sometimes virtual keyboards is emulated by certain programs on computer monitors.This helps the quadriplegics by overlaying the screen and enables the quadriplegics totype by using mouse to click keyboard’s characters.4) Voice Recognition Systems are also available as input devices for quadriplegics toinput their texts on computer screen. This works by recognising the voice of the user.5) SNP devices known as “sip and puff” which is a technology specially menat forquadriplegics which enables them to control onscreen movements simply by breathing. Inthis a special wand is present which has to be put on head or chin. This allows to sendsignals to the keyboard by use of air pressure by sipping that is inhaling process orpuffing that is exhausting on the wand [3].5) Mouth stylus (mouth stick) which is a good input device for quadriplegics who havegood head control and whose upper body has impairment. This acts like a finger withwhich one can easily select options on the screen and navigate the device [3].6) There is another input device used nowadays known as Tecla Shield that has thegreater portability for the quadriplegics. This has been designed to adapt quickly todifferent inputs and is used with 1-6 input switches. The utilisation of joystick with this isvery fast.Q3.Almost 10 percent of world’s population is living with some form of disability which canbe physical, sensory and cognitive that makes daily activities too difficult. Quadriplegicsare the people having disability either in form of arms or legs which have to depend onsome technologies to work on computer if they wanted to do so. The assistive technology market is growing fast, since many people in US are facingdisability which gave them reason to develop such technologies The U.S. market forassistive technologies, which includes low- and high-tech vision, auditory and speakingaids, is projected to grow from $41.1 billion last year to $55 billion in 2016, according toLondon-based Vertical Edge Ltd., a market research firm [9].There are many technologies that are helpful for working of quadriplegics in field ofcomputing and those are listed below:1) Adaptive technology2) Accessible technology3) Assistive technologyThe accessibility options that have been currently invented for the quadriplegics are asfollows:1) Adaptive Stylus2) Tecla Shield3) Mouth Stylus4) Pogo stylusThe detailed working of all the accessibility options are as follows:1) Adaptive StylusThis has been designed as a Sixth digit stylus or pointer which allows access to an iPad,standard keyboards, microwaves. These stylus are meant for those people with poor handor finger control. This is portable, wearable and very functional. This works just like afinger and one can easily control all the movements on screen by preforming some tasks

End of preview

Want to access all the pages? Upload your documents or become a member.

Related Documents
Report On Quadriplegics