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What is Emotional Marketing : User Emotions from Marketing Perspective

Added on - 25 Jan 2022

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Table of Contents
Introduction............................................................................................................................................3
Research Objectives...............................................................................................................................4
Research Gap.........................................................................................................................................4
Theoretical Framework..........................................................................................................................5
What is Emotional Marketing................................................................................................................6
Analyse Emotion from the Psychological Perspective:..........................................................................9
Jamesian Theories..............................................................................................................................9
Evolutionary Theories......................................................................................................................10
Social Constructionists Theories......................................................................................................10
Cognitive‐appraisal Theories...........................................................................................................10
Classification of Emotion.....................................................................................................................11
Alternative Models to Basic Emotions.................................................................................................14
Measuring Emotions............................................................................................................................16
Measuring Consumer Emotions...........................................................................................................18
User Emotions from Product Design Perspective.................................................................................19
Product Experience..........................................................................................................................20
Product Emotions.............................................................................................................................23
Measuring Product Emotions...........................................................................................................26
User Emotions from Marketing Perspective.........................................................................................29
Brand and Branding.........................................................................................................................29
Emotional Marketing Strategies...........................................................................................................31
Inspiration........................................................................................................................................31
Pride.................................................................................................................................................32
Fear..................................................................................................................................................32
Nostalgia..........................................................................................................................................32
Greed................................................................................................................................................33
Cognitive Learning..............................................................................................................................33
Consumer Decision Making Process....................................................................................................34
Consumer Decision Making and Cognitive Learning...........................................................................37
Hierarchy of Needs..........................................................................................................................37
Passive View....................................................................................................................................38
Consumer Decision Making and Passive View..............................................................................38
Economic View................................................................................................................................38
Consumer Decision Making and Economic View..........................................................................39
Emotional View...............................................................................................................................39
Consumer Decision Making and Emotional View.........................................................................40
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Alternative theories of Consumer Decision Making Process................................................................40
Freudian...........................................................................................................................................40
Neo Freudian....................................................................................................................................40
Traits Theory....................................................................................................................................40
Factors Considered by Consumers While Decision Making Process...................................................40
Perceived Quality of Product...........................................................................................................40
Brand Awareness.............................................................................................................................41
Consumer Purchasing Decision........................................................................................................41
Emotions in Purchasing Process.......................................................................................................41
Customer Emotions..........................................................................................................................42
Emotional Intelligence.....................................................................................................................43
Cognitive Factors and Brand Experience of UK Consumers................................................................44
Sensory Branding / Emotional Branding..........................................................................................49
Neuromarketing as a New Marketing Tool..........................................................................................51
The Anticipation of Consumer Decision-Making with Neuromarketing..............................................53
Emotions in Terms of Contents and Languages: A Tool of Possibilities of Online Marketing........57
Audience’s Reaction and Cognitive Factors to Determine Customer Engagement..........................62
Techniques of Neuromarketing............................................................................................................66
Outside Reflex..................................................................................................................................66
Body Language................................................................................................................................67
Empathy...........................................................................................................................................67
Facial Coding...................................................................................................................................67
Eye Tracking....................................................................................................................................68
Input-/Output Models.......................................................................................................................68
Inside Reflexes.................................................................................................................................68
EEG..................................................................................................................................................68
fMRI................................................................................................................................................69
Practical Applications of Neuromarketing...........................................................................................69
Impact of Neuromarketing on Pricing and Product Development........................................................70
Evaluation of Neuroscience in Marketing............................................................................................71
Evaluation of Emotional Attributes in Social Media Marketing:.........................................................74
Limitations of Neuromarketing............................................................................................................77
Conclusion...........................................................................................................................................77
References............................................................................................................................................80
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Introduction
The purpose of the literature review is to answer research objectives by developing a
theoretical framework, which will enable the researcher to understand the research problem
that is being studied. Thus, this chapter will foremost examine the evolution of emotional
marketing, cognitive factors of marketing followed by the emotional and cognitive factors of
marketing that influence consumer judgment and decision making, relevant frameworks, its
importance,anditsimplementationinglobalmarketing.Furthermore,emotionaland
cognitive factors that marketers utilize for their marketing purposes will be analyzed.
This literature review has been designed to examine emotions in three types of literature:
psychology,marketing,anddesign.Thefirstsectionfocusesonemotionsfromthe
perspective of psychologists, trying to conceptualize what emotions are and how they are
evoked. The second section analyzes users' emotions within the design literature, where
researchers look at how emotions are triggered. The third section consists of the analysis of
emotions from a marketing point of view. This part explains how the marketing literature
deals with user emotions. In the last section, perspectives from psychology, design, and
marketing are summarized and discussed.
Psychology analysts’ study what emotions are and the way individuals react towards objects
and events emotionally. Though psychological science does not research emotions towards
brands and products specifically, it explains the explanations behind emotions and provides
valuable background on the topic.
Understanding the feelings in the direction of products and brands cannot be understood if the
advertising perspective is excluded. However, each layout and advertising literature have
variations in how they outline the individual that uses a product and the experience the
individual has with the product. The advertising perspective does now no longer mention
‘user’ or ‘usage’ because the designers do, rather ‘consumer’ and ‘purchase’.
Marketing strategists pay attention to the purchase experience of consumers. After purchasing
a product or service, they are interested in the way consumers "repurchase" a brand, which is
achieved by purchasing products from other brands. This forces market researchers to
determine the reasons and explore consumer perception and satisfaction. Market research is a
waytounderstandconsumerneedsandmakedecisionsaboutproductdesign,price,
distribution, and promotion. On the other hand, what does the designer care about is the user's
experience when using the product. This is why the language of the product, the decision
about the product shape, and the use case of the product have become important. These two
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different views intersect with the designer and marketer and the "user" or "consumer"
emotional interaction.
Research Objectives
The research’s aim accentuates the ultimate goal that a researcher hopes to achieve as a result
of carrying out a study. Setting a purposeful and clear goal allowed the researcher and readers
to understand the actual focus of the study as well as the outcomes the study will achieve once
completed. The purpose of this research is to determine the impact of emotional and cognitive
marketing factors on consumer judgment and decision-making in the UK market. The
methods and strategies to be used in research to achieve the study's final purpose are defined
by the objectives. The following are the goals of this research:
To explain the consumer judgment and buying decision process
To find the impact of emotional and cognitive factors on the consumer judgment and
decision-making process
To review the previous literature and related theories of the consumer decision-
making process
To investigate the key cognitive and emotional marketing factors of interest for
marketers in the UK market
To recommend the most effective ways of cognitive and emotion targeted marketing
efforts to the marketers in UK consumer-based products
Research Gap
Often these earlier attempts have been inadequate in terms of methods utilized in overall and
mathematical initiatives in particular, which play a major role in research focusing on
quantitative studies, and this lack of adequate necessitates the elimination of a number of
mathematics procedures required for assessing predictive validity of any scale. Furthermore,
and perhaps more crucially, kids with varying levels of cognition and emotion are still spread
out and at different ends of the spectrum.There is agreat lackofcognitive and affective
factorsin relationtoyoungconsumers,in additionto alackof reliableknowledgefor
assessingthe degree of cognitivereflection,littleplanning, andprotagonist aboutpossible
consequences ofcomprehensiveimpulsebuying. Likewise,there is alargediscrepancyinthe
determinants ofaffect,andonly modest attemptshave been made tomeasuretheextentof
irresistibleurgesto buy, mood management, positiveshoppingemotions, andpost-purchase
imbalancesor emotionalconflictsthatarisefromspontaneousshoppingbetween different
young people withdifferentpersonalities,therewasalackofintelligibility.
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Severalsmallerstudies have been conductedinthepast few years todiagnose therelationship
betweena person's internalsand impulsive buying behavior, but suchstudies ofimpulsive
consumersinthe pasthaveonlyhelpedclassifypeople as"spontaneous"or"cautious".
Consumersandpredictedwhether apersonmight act impulsively, but these efforts neither
understoodthereasonsfor suchimpulsivenessnor did theyexplainhow impulsive a person
mightact.Thedimensions of a consumer can trigger pleasureneeds andmanipulateimpulses
in order toact impulsively andto determinepurchasingtendenciesfora particular item.
In addition,previous studiesdifferentiatedimpulsive buying into twomaincomponents of
cognition and affect and reduced the overall study to constructs that lacked universal
reliability and validity.Theconstructssimplyconsisted ofa fewitems that lacked the premise
togeneralizeandgeneralizethe results. A study was conducted on the effect and cognition,
which,whiledistinguishingcognition and affect inseveralsub dimensions,but in theuseof
superiorstatisticalones methods poor was the toolsnecessary to obtainreliable results andto
determinethe validity of an instrument, and this limitation has beenremovedin current
effortsthrough the application of higherorderstatistical measures.Another study showed the
adoption of thecognitive and affectframeworkto study impulsive buying behavior of
cognition and theeffectswere furthersubdividedintosubstructures,buttheadoptionof the
items wasnot comprehensive and wastaken into account againin the current study and the
results of the present work in this regard can help researchers interested in thetopicof
impulsivity,cognition and affect in future endeavors.
Theoretical Framework
The theoretical framework isa graphic illustration that aids in demonstrating the intended
causal relation. It is also known as a research frameworkor research model. Ravitch and
Riggan (2017) established a strong link between theoretical and conceptual frameworks.
According to them, the conceptual framework defines the overall structure of the research,
whereas the theoretical framework explains the relationships investigated in the study. The
theoretical framework of this literature review depicts the breakdown of this chapter's
research. This chapter began by discussing the many theories of emotion. Jamesian theories,
evaluation theories, social constructionist theories, and cognitive appraisal theories are among
thetheories.Thecategorizationofemotionsfollows,whichcoversalternativesto
fundamental emotions as well as assessing emotions from different users' viewpoints. Product
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experience, product emotions, and measuring product emotions have all been discussed from
the user's point of view. Under the emotions from marketing views, the brand and branding
viewpoints, cognitive aspects, and brand experience, emotional branding have been explored.
The use of neuromarketing as a marketing tactic has been examined in the discussion of
neuromarketing.Outsidereflex,bodylanguage,empathy,facecoding,eyetracking,
input/outputmodels,insidereflex,EEG,andfMRIaresomeoftheneuromarketing
approaches that have been considered. The detailed explanation of these parts demonstrates
how these tools are used to analyze customers' emotions toward various features of items, as
well as what marketing variables impact these tools.
Image 2.1 Theoretical Framework
What is Emotion?
There is no agreement on what constitutes an emotion, how emotions should be studied, or
how the implications for the study of emotions should be implemented in workplaces. Indeed,
there is considerable debate on the nature and ontology of emotions. Broadly speaking, the
understanding of emotions can be divided into two main schools of thought: understanding
emotions through sociological or socio-cultural theories or understanding them as definable
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Theoretical
Framework
About emotional marketing and its strategies
Cognitive learning and Consumer decision making process
Theoritical Analysis of Emotion
Classification of Emotions
Measuring Emotions from Different Prespectives
Analysis of Neuromarketing
Techniques and Tools of Neuromarketing
Application of Neuromarketing and Consumer Decision Making
Process of UK
via psychologicaltheories.In psychologicaltheories, the understandingof emotionas
primarily an individual experience and essentially intra-psychic phenomenon is the most
established one. Cognitive emotion theory highlights the meanings of beliefs as major
antecedents of emotions. Sociological and socio-cultural approaches argue that understanding
emotion merely as an individual experience ignores the meaning of particular social and
cultural contexts and the interpersonal, communicative function of emotions. Thus, according
to socially oriented views, emotions are not only as phenomena that exist in the mind but as
entities that shape and structure social interaction and its consequences. The central idea is
that emotional expressions are dependent on learned rules that are socially and culturally
constituted. Emotions can also be understood as culturally coded social entities, referring to
socially produced categories and concepts that have the weight of tradition and everyday
experience behind them. Emotion, according to Mayer and Salovey, is one of three or four
mental operations. The first set of mental processes, motivation, is engaged in response to
bodily drives such as hunger, thirst, or sexual wants, which guides the organism to meet its
survival demands. They went on to say that emotions appeared to evolve among mammalian
species to signal actual or perceived changes in the environment and elicit responses to those
changes, whereas cognition allows the organism to solve problems and learn from its
environment and includes conscious and flexible information processing such as learning,
memory, and problem solving (Odukoya, 2020). Emotional intelligence is a phrase that refers
to the merging of emotion and cognition. It can be said that, emotional intelligence is a mental
talent that is required for adaptability in, molding, or choosing of any environmental setting,
not just a specific one. Drawing from this cooperative combination of intelligence and
emotion, emotional intelligence may be defined as a generic ability in perceiving emotions in
oneself and in others, in managing emotions, and in coping effectively in emotional-laden
situations. In the field of organization and workplace studies, scholars have approached
emotions through psychological and sociological lenses. In this field, emotions have often
been approached via the concepts of emotional intelligence and emotional labor. Emotional
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intelligence refers to the extent to which one can monitor feelings and direct one’s own
thinking and actions.
Overall, one can say that the conceptual discussion and empirical studies have conceptualized
emotions in a range of ways, but that emotions, on the whole, have tended to be seen as
socially constructed and regulated. In this review, we take a holistic stance because our prime
interest is in how emotions are understood and described in studies on learning at work. It
should be noted here that we also acknowledge the relevance of concepts like affect, mood,
and feelings in organization studies.
What is Emotional Marketing
Emotional marketing represents another form of language universally spoken and understood.
An emotion is a mental and physiological state associated with a wide variety of feelings,
thoughts, and internal (physical) or external (social) behaviors. Emotion is a process, in which
the perception of a set of stimuli, allows a cognitive assessment that enables people to label
and identify a particular emotional state (Joyner et al., 2018). The new concept of marketing,
“emotional marketing” concentrates the importance of emotional link between the company
andtheconsumeraffectedbythesystemofthecharacteristicvaluesandneedsof
contemporary consumers, which, in turn, forms a new symbol consumption culture (Rytel,
2017). Moreover, emotional marketing can be defined as a new paradigmatic approach or a
new marketing shift, where management (creation, support, evaluation) of emotional link
between the company and the consumer (or other market players) becomes the key exchange-
stimulating feature (Rytel, 2017). As the research, the theory rests on the basic idea that the
consumer’s buying/consumption choices are increasingly affected by not rational, but rather
emotional attributes of goods/services, brand symbols and other exchange elements, whose
psycho-symbolic features determine buying/consumption levels, and the type and duration of
relationship. Contemporary consumption culture permeated with symbols transforms value
creation chains, replacing rationally determined exchange attributes with emotional ones,
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