The Six Distinct Biological Features at Time of Multistage Development of Tumours

Added on -2020-02-18

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1Running head: CANCERMolecular basis of cancerName of student:Name of university:Author note:
2CANCER Table of ContentsQuestion 1..................................................................................................................................3Question 2..................................................................................................................................5a..............................................................................................................................................5b..............................................................................................................................................6c..............................................................................................................................................6Question 3..................................................................................................................................7a..............................................................................................................................................7b..............................................................................................................................................7c..............................................................................................................................................7Question 4..................................................................................................................................8a..............................................................................................................................................8b............................................................................................................................................11References................................................................................................................................12
3CANCER Question 1The“hallmarks of cancer” refer to the six distinct biological features acquired by cellswithin the body at the time of multistage development of tumours. These hallmarks, orassured characteristics of cancerous cells, make up the organizing principle for understandingthe different complexities related to the neoplastic disease. Research indicates that cancernormally develops within the human body as genetic changes and mutations accumulate. Thetrademarks or hallmarks of cancer are thus the attributes that a normal cell has to acquire inorder to be distinguished as a precancerous cell. These features differentiate the normal cellsfrom the cancerous cells. Though each of these hallmarks contributes to cancer, it is to benoted that a cell needs to showcase a set of these features in order to be known as a cancerouscell. Thee six hallmarks of cancer cells are self-sufficient cell division, evading growthsuppressors, resisting cell death, enabling replicative immortality, inducing angiogenesis, andactivating invasion and metastasis. Genomic instability is the underlying cause of thesehallmarks, generating a genomic diversity fostering multiple functions within the body (1).Self-sufficient cell division- Typical cells within the body are in need of molecular signalling,such as hormones, for their proper division and growth. Cancer cells have the striking featureof growing in the absence of such external signals. Such cells proliferate on their ownthrough the production of their own cells signals and signal receptors that are overactive.Furthermore, normal cells have a tight control system for cell division. In contrast, cancercells have deregulated cell division due to alteration of proteins controlling these processes. Evading growth suppressors- The cell cycle clock of cancer cells and normal cells havecompletely distinct from each other. The cell cycle is regulated by a set of a protein termed asthe tumour suppressor genes that carry information between cells for ensuring that they are ina stage to divide. In case of cancer cells, the protein is highly altered, and cell division is
4CANCER defective. The second method is the absence of contact inhibition, as exhibited by normalcells. Unlike normal cells, that stop dividing when they come into contact with nearby cells,cancer cells divide even if they come in contact with adjacent cells. Resisting cell death- Apoptosis is the process by which cells die when they are eitherdamaged or are no longer needed by the body. This process is valuable since it limits cellgrowth and discards cells that are already damaged. The cancer cells do not undergoapoptosis and thus accumulate within the body. The cause of disruption of apoptosis signalsis mutations in tumour suppressor genes or other forms of damage. Enabling replicative immortality- Cancer cells have the potential to replicate limitlessly. Asmall section of the end of chromosomes within the body, known as a telomere, disappearsafter a copy of the DNA is made. At a critical point, the loss of telomere ensures that divisionof cells is not possible. Cancer cells are immortalized since they have active telomerase,unlike normal cells. Inducing angiogenesis- Angiogenesis refers to the process of formation of new blood vesselsin the body. Cells that are cancerous in nature are found to exhibit the capability to form newblood cells in order to ensure that the cells are in a position to receive a continuous supply ofnutrients and oxygen. The underlying objective is the existence of these cells for a longerperiod of time within the body. Activating invasion and metastasis- The last but arresting feature is the ability to metastasize.This refers to the ability of breaking through tissue barriers and spreading into adjacentorgans. This ability determines whether the cell assumed to be cancerous is malignant orbenign. The process involves multiple stages, each bringing about a change in the respectivetissue and organ (2).

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