Introduction to Sensors : Assignment

Added on - 21 Apr 2021

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INTRODUCTIONA sensor is a device that acquires a physical parameter and converts it into a signal suitable forprocessing. The signal processing could be optical, electrical or even mechanical. Sensors areembedded in systems and applications with the aim of automating different systems.Temperature sensors are used in chemical processing plants, automobile engines, appliances, andother applications that require temperature monitoring. The light sensors are used in cameras,infrared detectors and ambient lighting applications. The sensors are composed ofphotoconductors such as photoresistors, photodiodes, or phototransistors. The ultrasonic sensorsare used for position measurements. The sound waves emitted are done in the frequency range of2- 15 Megahertz. It uses the Sonar and Radar technology. The photogates are used in countingapplications where one may require to obtain a period of a given motion. The infrared transmitterand receiver at opposite ends of the sensor and the time at which light is broken is thereafterrecorded.The American National Standards Institute defines the sensor as a device that provides a usableoutput to a specified measured parameter such as,StimulusQuantityAcousticWave (amplitude, phase, polarization), Spectrum,WaveVelocityBiological & ChemicalFluid Concentrations (Gas or Liquid)ElectricCharge, Voltage, Current, Electric Field (amplitude,phase,polarization), Conductivity, PermittivityMagneticMagnetic Field (amplitude, phase, polarization),Flux,PermeabilityOpticalRefractive Index, Reflectivity, AbsorptionThermalTemperature, Flux, Specific Heat, ThermalConductivityMechanicalPosition, Velocity, Acceleration, Force, Strain,Stress,Pressure, TorqueSECTION IPING SENSOR [Ultrasonic Module HC-SR04](a)Component Description1|Page
Ultrasonic module HC-SR04 is a range finder component that detects objects within agiven range as specified in the datasheet. The interface output formats from the sensor are thepulse width output, analog voltage output, and serial digital output. The object being detectedneeds to be the object closest to the sensor on its path. The ultrasonic module can be referred toas a sound sensor or a ping sensor. The sensor tends to operate at frequencies higher than thoseof human hearing. A human being can hear sound frequencies in the range of 20Hz- 40kHz.There are two major sections in the sensor, the trigger and the echo. The trigger sends out asound wave at a particular frequency. The sensor keeps track of the time between transmission ofthe sound wave and the sound wave echo. The distance is, therefore, obtained asd=vtThese sensors detect sounds using a cone of detection and the cone angle tends to vary with thedistance. The ability to detect an object on the path depends on the object orientation to thesensor. Any object that does not fall within the range of the sensor cone of detection is notspotted at all. The effectual angle of the cone of detection is usually at less than 150. Thecomponent can be used to detect objects in a specified range as desired in the project.(b)Key Information from the data sheet2|Page
Wire connectivity and product featuresPower Supply+5V DCQuiescent Current< 2mAWorking Current15mAEffectual Angle<150Ranging Distance2-400 cmResolution0.3 cmMeasuring Angle300Trigger Input Pulse Width10μSDimensions45mm x 20 mm x 15mmWeight~ 10gIt works by transmitting an ultrasonic burst and providing an output pulse thatcorresponds to the time required for the burst echo to return to the sensor. The distance tothe target can easily be calculated by measuring the echo pulse. The PING sensor emits ashort ultrasonic burst and waits for an echo from the echo point. The ultrasonic bursttravels through the air at about 1130 feet per second, hits an object and then bounces backto the sensor. The PING sensor provides an output pulse to the host that will terminatewhen the echo is detected, so that the width of the pulse corresponds to the distance of thetarget.(c)TestingThe tests were carried out in Proteus 8 Professional using the HC-SR04 and the ArduinoUno and a virtual terminal to display the serial output.3|Page
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