Wettability and Thermodynamic Variables Assignment

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Running head: WETTABILITY AND FLUID AND SOLID SURFACESThe Analysis of Thermodynamic Variables on Fluid and Solid SurfacesNameAcademic Institution
2Executive SummaryIn the modern day when the glob is greatly affected by high rates of carbon emissions,the capturing and storage of geological carbon and its storage in geological formations seems tobe the future of carbon emissions solutions. However, the security of this approach is dependenton characteristics of the reservoir mainly its wettability and its impact on the solid and fluidflows in the porous mediums. As such, it affects the thermodynamic variables of the medium,which also reduce the capacity of the injected CO2 into the ground. This paper analyzes thethermodynamic variables like temperature and pressure on fluid and solid surfaces of the porousmedium considering the contact angles within the solid and fluid systems. This is achievedthrough the acknowledgement of the role of wettability in multi-phase flow through poroussystems and an analysis of experimental predictions conducted by other scholars who failed toachieve reliable results due to the complexity and difficulty of simulating undergroundconditions. The relationships between wettability and the thermodynamic variables oftemperature and pressure are clearly discussed and analyzed using the research conducted in thispaper through the guidance of the findings of other scholars in this field.
3Table of ContentsTable of Contents.............................................................................................................................2Introduction......................................................................................................................................3Justification and Objectives.........................................................................................................3Literature Review.............................................................................................................................3Methodology....................................................................................................................................3Analysis and Discussion..................................................................................................................3Conclusions and Recommendations................................................................................................3References........................................................................................................................................4
4IntroductionIn the petroleum reservoirs in the earth’s surface, both the natural gas and oil componentscoexists with water deposits immiscibly, meaning that the water component is not able to mix upwith the hydrocarbons that make up the oil and gas components. This leaves a tension ofimmense strength between this water and oil, as a result of the separation from their immisciblestate. In addition, the natural gas component is also significantly immiscible with the oilcomponent, making the fluids existing within the reservoirs to contain energy that is surface free,as a result of the electrical forces resulting from this immiscible fluid matrix (Adamson & Gast,2007). The immiscible fluid matrix is kept together within the reservoir by these electrical forcesthat occur naturally as a result of the resultant cohesive and adhesive forces. The cohesive forcesbetween the particles of the same component medium are attracted to each other cohesively forall the fluids, while adhesion works to separate the different individual particles and thus makingthem immiscible through adhesion. This phenomenon contributes to the tension within thereservoir caused by the separation and immiscibility of the fluids and because the surface of thefluid matrix is held together by both cohesion and tension, to occupy the smallest possiblesurface area (Al-Yaseri et al., 2016). The fluid matrix thus in most cases acts a membraneundergoing surface tension.Wettability refers to the affinity of any fluid phase in the fluid matrix of natural gas andoil as well water, to wet a solid surface compared to the rest of the fluids in the immiscible fluidmatrix phase. When looking into wettability, oil and gas are treated as one component of thefluid matrix, since both of them bare the capability of wetting the solid surface identically, in amanner that differs from the water component type of wettability (Adamson & Gast, 2007). For
5instance within a reservoir, wettability describes the state of the rock and fluid matrix of thatrock of the reservoir, with regard to whether the rock is wetted by the water component or the oilcomponent of the fluid matrix. Wettability in a reservoir can occur in three different states whichrepresent the categories of wettability.Fig 1: The different possibility of occurrence for wettabilityThe arrows in the above figure represent the bearing of the tangent to the contact angle (θ) that isformed between the surface of the rock and the water particle, given that the particle is alsosurrounded by an oil phase as is the case in the reservoir. In the water wet scenario, water is thefluid that wets the solid surface of the rock preferentially, because the contact angle between thisrock and the water is an acute angle. Neutral wettability occurs when the contact angle betweendroplet of water and the surface of the rock in the reservoir is a right angle while the wettabilitysituation is considered oil wet if the contact angle is an obtuse angle (Arif et al., 2016).Wettability also plays a big role in the multiphase flow within the porous rocks of theearth’s surface as well as interactions between fluids and rocks, as this is what characterizes thereservoirs where the fluid matrix of oil and gas is found. In addition, the storage of carbon aswell as its capture is yet another play and contributor to the natural process of reducing carbonemissions in the environment, an approach that has been recently embraced in the reduction of
6these emissions for a cleaner environment (Amott, 2009). Since the capture of carbon and itsstorage is a physical process requiring the injection of CO2, wettability plays a great role indistributing the fluid phases and thus the final destinations of the CO2 that is injected into theground through this process. This in turn affects the permeability and the effective pressurewithin the voids and the capillary in the site, which in turn significantly affect the CO2 modelingof the reservoir for storing the gas. The storage of these gases thus mainly depends onwettability, and thus the thermodynamic variables affecting how the rock and the fluid matrixbehave in conditions of pressure and temperature should be assessed and evaluated. Since thesethermodynamic variables especially within the earth’s surface vary greatly, an analysis of thethermodynamic variables affecting the fluids and the solid surface of the rocks can beinvestigated by following the behavior of the contact angle of brine or even CO2. This is becausethe impact of CO2 has been greatly investigated as interest on CO2 storage in this earth’s surfacecontinues to be investigated in the academic world through research, as this avenue provides afeasible solution in the reduction of carbon from the atmosphere through its injection in theearth’s surface (Anderson, 2006). In addition, the densities of gas can also be used in theexploration of the factors of wettability,allowing for reliable conclusions regarding the conceptof wettability. This clearly also sheds light on the impact of the variability of thesethermodynamic variables on the solid surfaces of the rocks of the reservoirs.Justification and ObjectivesThe analysis extends the works of other researchers like Arif and Al-Yasseri, whoinvestigate the thermodynamic properties of different materials with regard to wettability of solidand fluid surfaces in a medium. The main aim of the study is to identify and analyze the changesin wettability of both solid and fluid phases of materials during the extraction of petroleum from
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