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Question-   Indoor & Outdoor Games






Indoor Game


Outdoor Game


1 – 3 years / Toddlers



In this age and stage bracket falls the categories of solitary plays, spectator plays, parallel plays and associative plays. If we look closely, we can find that no cooperation’s are being found during these stages.






  • Playing with play cards
  • Creative plays like playing with clay and dough
  • Shape hunt like children are asked to find objects that are round in shape inside the classroom or home



  • I spy with my little eye something that is green – children will look around the objects or things that are green in color for instance when taken in a park, zoo etc.
  • We can take the kids to the beach and have a sand castle competition.
  • Having a water table in the backyard and having a competition among the kids that whoever finds first 5 yellow fishes in the box will win.



4 – 5 years / Pre-schoolers


They like to share and take turns but requires help.


  • Hand clap games like Patty Cake song, Miss Susie etc.
  • Picture Charade games
  • Board Games like Snakes & Ladders, Hungry hungry hippos, Candyland etc.


  • Hide & Seek game in which one player closes his or her eyes for a brief period while the other players hide. The seeker then opens his eyes and tries to find the hiders; the first one found is the next seeker, and the last is the winner of the round.


  • Ring a Ring a Roses; is a nursery rhyme plus one of the oldest outdoor games that involves singing. Children hold hands and go around in circles singing the rhyme. Fall down when they sing ‘fall down!’






5 - 6 years / Pre-schoolers


Children of this age range cooperate in group plays but not yet ready for team games



  • Board games like The Floor is lava! is a game where players must imagine the floor is molten hot lava while spinning the color wheel to jump to the right foam pieces to reach safety.
  • Red Light, Green Light; One person is chosen to be 'It' and one stands a good distance away from the other players with his back to them. The other players stand in a line facing it. When it calls Green Light, the other players move towards him until he spins around, calling Red Light.


  • Cat & Mouse game; 2 players volunteer to play the cat and the mouse. The other players should form a circle and hold hands. The player who is the mouse should stand inside the circle and the cat should stand outside the circle. The aim of the game is for the mouse to get outside the circle and avoid being caught by the cat.
  • Jump Rope; the turners swing the rope forward toward the line, then away. As they do so, the first player must run under the rope and back without touching the rope or letting it touch him. After one pass, the second person in line joins in and both players run under the rope. Then three runners go together, and so on.


6 – 8 years / Middle Childhood


These children tend to play games with rules.



  • Card games like Shake & Score
  • Name, Place, Animal & Thing starting with an alphabet A and scoring points with all correct answers.
  • Musical chairs; Walk around the chairs when the music starts. Find a chair to sit in when the music stops. Leave the game, if you're left without a chair. Remove one more chair and play again. Continue playing rounds until there is one person left.



  • Tug of War; teams will pull on a rope until one of the teams or players succeeds at pulling the majority of the rope over to one side.
  • Duck, duck & goose;Allthe players, except the first person who is It, sit in a circle. It walks around the circle, tapping each player on the head, saying “duck” each time until he decides to tap someone and say “goose.” That person becomes the goose and runs after it, trying to tag him before it can take his seat.



8 – 12 years / Middle Childhood


These children enjoy playing and inventing games with rules.



  • Board games like Monopoly,
  • Charade games
  • Freeze dance; the person who is "It" chases the other kids to try to tag them. When she successfully tags a player, that player must freeze and remain frozen until another player, who has not been tagged, tags them to unfreeze them. The game continues until all runners have been frozen, and then a new person becomes "It."
  • Telephone game; the first person in the line or circle whispers a word or phrase into the ear of the person sitting or standing to their right. The Game Continues. Players whisper the phrase to their neighbors until it reaches the last player in line.


  • Spud; a game for children and adults, where players try to eliminate each other by catching and throwing an inflated and generally soft ball. It is related to "call ball" and "ball tag".
  • Cricket
  • Hula Hoop; Divide the class into 2 teams. Each team holds hands and gets into a line that begins at the goal line and extends towards the center line. A hula hoop starts at the front of the line and each person must go through the hula hoop to pass it down the line.





Q. Assess the value and appropriateness of non-competitive / competitive games and activities.

Ans.Before assessing the value and appropriateness of competitive and non – competitive games and activities, we should first understand the relationship between co-operative behavior activities and non-competitive games and activities and vice versa.

Non-competitive games leads towards a cooperative behavior within a child, in which there will be a no winner and no loser. By being cooperative, sharing and turn taking also emerges which will help children develop important social-emotional skills including self-regulation. As mentioned above that cooperative games do not focuses on winning or losing, therefore every child involved in an activity will be aimed towards achieving a unified goal. Hence, the outcomes will be improving health, fitness and of course enjoyment, learning together and positive sense of attitude is achieved.

Bay-Hintz and Wilson (2005) demonstrated the value of cooperative games in a preschool. Cooperative games were played for thirty-minutes per day in one group, and competitive games were played in the other. Two other groups played cooperative games for part of the study, and competitive games for part of the study.  In all conditions where cooperative games were introduced cooperative behavior during free play increased. Cooperative behavior decreased during periods where competitive games were played.  The games used in this study included group games like cooperative musical chairs and Family Pastimes games. There are many other popular cooperative board and card games like The Ungame which are used by the therapists to foster communication, promote sharing, interacting and listening.

Both cooperative and non-competitive games facilitate therapy by becoming the place where therapist and client interact with each other. Non-competitive games typically involve more discussion and disclosure, while cooperative games require social skills and effective communication to achieve success.

On the contrary, if we look at the competitive games or the games with rules we’ll find that it helps children to work out social situations, negotiating with their friends to work out what needs to be done. Rules offer an organized structured form of play, helping children's understanding of order and sequence. By playing competitive games, a child develops a ‘can do’ attitude which will eventually leads them to reach their full potential and achieve their best. But we also cannot neglect its disadvantages like as there will be only 1 winner in a competitive game so everyone will be working against each other that is very discouraging and will in the end leads everyone turning people away from playing together. A child establishes superiority over other children.

 As an adult we should manage competitiveness among children by making them also learn failure and should learn through failure. Provide them with some activities that will help children develop social skills and learn turn taking and sharing.

Every child is different from one another. Some may be too much competitive and some are not competitive by nature. A balance should be maintained between the two. We should introduce activities to a noncompetitive child which has a competitive element in it. Children with competitive nature should be made aware of the needs of the other children, support and honor other children with positive behavior and feelings.

Appropriateness of competitive and noncompetitive games and activities depends upon which age group we are dealing with. There are different types of game settings for different age groups. For instance, for a child in between 3 -7 years of age, should be engaged in activities that involve dice, timers, spinners, turn taking, sorting and matching where children are thinking about what they need to do like separating the red crayons from the yellow and blues. Games with dice and timers are appropriate for 8+ years of children.

In my opinion, regardless of whichever theory one supports, it is an important thing to remember that a child must feel value for who he/she is rather than just for his/her success or achievements. A child should be made aware that he/she is being valued for trying, for being responsible for his/her actions, intentions and choices and should make and use positive efforts and behavior striving towards success.


Q. Review a selection of appropriate table top games for children.





Tabletop Game







18 months - 3 years / Early Childhood





Little Bus Jigsaw Puzzle by Orchard Toys



Lovely little jigsaw. The pieces are quite thick and having a picture on both sides is like having 2 puzzle in one. The pictures are quite detailed, so there is plenty to talk about which helps in speech and as well as in eye co-ordination. On the packaging, it says 3+ years but 2+ years children can go for it as my niece loves solving it. Good quality and nice chunky pieces. Really worth buying it.


3 - 5 years / Middle childhood


Penguin Pairs Mini Game by Orchard Toys

(Card Games)


It's a great little game to put in your bag to play when you're out and about. The cardboard is very sturdy & strong, with just enough thickness to make them easy to pick up. Game itself as well as educational it is extremely addictive, it alongside a similar toy soon became the most popular to play with at the birthday parties.




5 - 12 years / Late Childhood




Match and Spell Next Steps by Orchard Toys

(Board Games)


Excellent product. What makes this product excellent is that it combines learning and having fun at the same time. Great learning aid to improve phonetics skills and blending of letter sounds. I highly recommend this product.



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