- The willingness to exert (apply) high levels of effort to reach organizational goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual need
- Effort-a measure of intensity or drive
- Goals –effort should be directed toward, and consistent with, organizational goals/li>
Need -an internal state that makes certain outcomes appear attractive
Unsatisfied needs - create tensions that stimulate drives
Lower- order needs-largely satisfied externally.
Higher –order needs largely satisfied internally
The hierarchy of Needs Theory-the best – known theory of motivation is probably Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory. He hypothesized that within every human being there exists a hierarchy of five needs. These are:
Physiological needs: the most basic human physical needs include food, water, and oxygen . In the organizational setting, they are reflected in the needs for adequate heat, air and base salary to ensure survival.
Safety needs these needs include a safe and secure physical needs include food, water and oxygen. In the organizational setting ,they are reflected in the needs for adequate heat, air and base salary to ensure survival.
Social needs (belongingness):these need reflect the desire to be accepted by one’s peers, have friends, be part of a group and be loved .In the organization, these needs influence the desire for good relationships with coworkers, participation in a work group and positive relationship with supervisors.
Esteem needs: these needs related to the desire for a positive self- image and to receive attention, recognition and appreciation form others. With organizations, esteem needs reflect a motivation for recognition, an increase in responsibility , high status and credit for contributions to the organization.
Self –actualization needs : these needs include the need for self-fulfillment , which is the highest need category . They concern developing one’s full potential , increasing one’s competence and becoming a better person .Self –actualization needs can be met in the organization by providing people with opportunities to grow, be creative and acquire training for challenging assignments and advancement/p>
Ambitious and capable of directing their own behaviour.
3. Accept and seek responsibility under proper conditions
4. Creativity widely spread.
5.Both lower –level and higher –order needs like social, esteem and self-actualization are sources of motivation
6.self-directin and self-control.
7.Decentralisation and participation in decision making. Democratic leadership.
8.People are self-motivated
3. Avoid responsibility
4. Lack creativity and resist change
5. Focus on lower –level (physiological and safety)needs to motivate workers
6. External control and close supervision required to achieve organizational objectives.
7.centralisation of authority and autocractic leaderhip
8.People lack self-motivation
7. Centralization of authority and autocratic leadership.
8. People lack self-motivation
4)Herzberg’s Motivation Theory model, or Two Factor Theory, argues that there are two factors that an organization can adjust to influence motivation in the workplace.
These factors are:
The presence of motivators causes employees to work harder. They are found within the actual job itself.
The absence of hygiene factors will cause employees to work less hard. Hygiene factors are not present in the actual job itself but surround the job
>The impact of motivating and hygiene factors is summarized in the following diagram. Note that you will often see motivators referred to as factors for satisfaction, and hygiene factors referred to as factors for dissatisfaction.
Examples of motivating and hygiene factors are shown in the following diagram.
Motivating factors include:
- : A job must give an employee a sense of achievement. This will provide a proud feeling of having done something difficult but worthwhile.
- : A job must provide an employee with praise and recognition of their successes. This recognition should come from both their superiors and their peers.
- : The job itself must be interesting, varied, and provide enough of a challenge to keep employees motivated.
- : Employees should “own” their work. They should hold themselves responsible for this completion and not feel as though they are being micromanaged.
- Advancement: Promotion opportunities should exist for the employee.
- Growth: The job should give employees the opportunity to learn new skills. This can happen either on the job or through more formal training
- Company policies: These should be fair and clear to every employee. They must also be equivalent to those of competitors.
- Supervision: Supervision must be fair and appropriate. The employee should be given as much autonomy as is reasonable.
- Relationships: There should be no tolerance for bullying or cliques. A healthy, amiable, and appropriate relationship should exist between peers, superiors, and subordinates.
- Work conditions Equipment and the working environment should be safe, fit for purpose, and hygienic.
- Salary : The pay structure should be fair and reasonable. It should also be competitive with other organizations in the same industry.
- Status: The organization should maintain the status of all employees within the organization. Performing meaningful work can provide a sense of status: It is important that employees feel that their job is secure and they are not under the constant threat of being laid-off.
5.Three-Need The-proposed by David McClelland that covered three major relevant motives or needs in work situation.
Need for achievemen:they prefer working on task of moderate difficulty, prefer work in which the results are based on their effort rather than on anything else and prefer to receive feeback on their work .Achievement based individuals tend to avoid both high –risk and low-risk situations . Low –risk situations are seen as too easy to be valid and the high risk situations are seen as based more on the luck of the situation rather than the achievements that individual made .This personality type is motivated by accomplishment in the workplace and an employement hierarchy with promotional position
Need for power - People in this category enjoy work and place a high value on discipline .The downside to this motivational type is that group goals can become zero-sum in nature ,that is, for one person to win ,another must lose .However ,this can be positively applied to help accomplish group goals and to help others in the group feel competent about their work .A person motivated by this need enjoys status recognition , winning arguments, competition , and influencing others. With this motivational type comes a need for personal prestige and a constant need for a better personal status
Need for affiliation -People who have a need for affiliation prefer to spend time creating and maintaining social relationships, enjoy being a part of groups, and have a desire to feel loved and accepted .People in this group tend to adhere to the norms of the culture in that workplace and typically do not change the norms of the workplace for fear of rejection .This person favors collaboration over competition and does not like situations with high risk or high uncertainty. People Who have a need for affiliation work well in areas based on social interactions like customer service or client interaction positions.
- intention to work toward a goal is a major source of job motivation
- pecific goals increase performance
ans-serif">-difficult goal, when accepted , results in higher performance than does an easy goal
-specific hard goals produce a higher level of output than does the generalized goal of “do your best”
- participation in goal setting is useful
-reduces resistance to accepting difficult goals
- feedback is useful
-helps identify discrepancies between what has been accomplished and what needs to be done
-self –generated feedback is a powerful motivator
- contingencies in goal-setting theory
-goal commitment –theory presupposes that individual is determined to accomplish the goal
-most likely to occur when :
- goals are made public
- individual has an internal locus of control
- goals are self-set rather than assigned
- self-efficacy-an individual’s belief that she is capable of performing a task
- higher self-efficacy , greater motivation to attain goals
- national culture –theory is culture bound
- main ideas align with North American cultures
- goal setting may nt lead to higher performance in other cultures
Expectancy Theory (Victor Vroom)
- A process theory that proposes that motivation depends on individuals expectations about their ability to perform tasks and receive desired rewards.
- It concerned not with identifying types of needs but with the thinking process that individuals use to achieve rewards,
- Expectancy theory is based on the relationship among the individual’s effort, the individual’s performance and the desirability of outcomes associated with high performance.
E-P expectancy - involves determining whether putting effort into a task a given task will lead to high performance
-for this expectancy to be high, the individual must have the ability, previous experience and necessary equipment, tools and opportunity to perform.
P-O expectancy- whether successful performance will lead to the desired outcomes or reward.
-If the expectancy is that high performance will not produce the desired outcome ,motivation will be lower.
Suggestion for motivating employees
Recognize individual difference –employees are not homogeneous and have different needs .They also differ in terms of attitudes, personality and other important individual variables.
Don’t ignore money –allocation of performance based wage increases, piecework bonuses and other pay incentives I s important in determining employee motivation.
Use goals-managers should ensure that employees have challenging, specific goals and feedback on how well they are doing in pursuit of those goals.
9.Job satisfaction is the degree to which individuals feel positively or negatively about their jobs.
- It is an attitude or emotional response to one’s tasks as well as to the physical and social conditions of the workplace.
- Sometimes, it is also useful to examine more formally the levels of job satisfaction among groups of workers ,especially through formal inter views or questionnaires
2 methods widely used:
- Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ)
MSQ measures satisfaction with working conditions ,chances for advancement ,freedom to use one’s own judgment ,praise for doing a good job, and feelings of accomplishment ,among others.
- Job Descriptive Index (JDI)
The five facets of job satisfaction measured by the JDI are:
= the work itself – responsibility, interest .and growth.
= Quality of supervision – technical help and social support.
=Relationships with co-workers –social harmony and respect.
=Promotion opportunities – chances for further advancement
=Pay –adequacy of pay and perceived equity vis-à-vis others
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