Question-   Parliamentary & Presidential Systems


Q.1.   What is better a parliamentary or presidential system of government?

what kind of system you would like to recommend for your country.





All Countries around the globe has their constitution. Under which government entities and institutional structure function. Policies and decisions are also made under it. In very simple terms, it is the constitution, which covers every aspect of the country's adopted political system. Parliamentary and Presidential are the two types of governments. Under the parliamentary system of the government, Any political party that hold maximum number of seats in the parliament makes the government. After that they elect the head of their government from among themselves whom we called Prime Minister. On the other side, the president is the chief executive in the presidential system of government, who is directly chosen by the people. The very simple definition of the both are in presidential its executive is not the part of legislature and in the parliamentary system executive (government) is the part of the legislature (law making body).


Before I jump into favoring any of these system lets have a detailed view of both. Parliamentary type of government is a system of democratic governance in a country in which the executive branch stems from the law making body which is parliament. The government (executive) here is split into two parts, one is president who is the head of state and is the nominated executive. And second is the head of government the Prime minister, basically the Prime minister is the real executive. And according to this system, the government is established by the political party that gets the highest number of seats in the Parliament through federal elections. The new government elect an individual from them, who is appointed as Prime minster by the President. Then that Prime minister forms a cabinet for that there is a condition that those members should be out of the parliament. And that cabinet is accountable/ answerable to the parliament or the legislative body.

In Presidential form there is only individual that is the head of state who is titled as the president. The President's election is made for a fixed period of time directly by the country's citizens or sometimes by the electoral college members. The president appoint some ministers as the secretary and make a small cabinet that helps in the country governance. President and the secretaries are not answerable for their actions to Congress. In addition, they do not attend sessions as well.


There are also few key differences between both of the systems firstly Parliamentary form of democracy is one in which the legislative and government body have a cordial relationship, while the judiciary operates independently. Despite this, the three governmental bodies function independently of each other in presidential system of government. Secondly The executive, in parliamentary system of democracy, is split into 2 parts, one part as President (the Head of State) while the second part as Prime Minsiter (Head of Government).  On the opposite side, the chief executive of the presidential system is the president. There is a convergence of powers in the parliamentary system, while in the Presidential system the powers are divided. Under parliamentary type, only such individuals who are the Members of Parliament can be ministers in the governmental body.  On the other hand, individuals other than those serving in the law making body can be selected as secretaries in presidential form. Thirdly, In the Parliamentary form of democracy, the head of government has an authority that he can dissolve lower house (National Assembly) even before his completion of tenure. In contrast, the President has no authority to dissolve the lower house in Presidential form of government. The government term is not set in parliamentary form of government, and if a vote of no confidence is passed in Parliament, the Council of Ministers is removed. In contrast, in the presidential government the executive has a fixed tenure. 


I think both of the systems are well explained now moving towards the next part, which system of the both is better for country like Pakistan. I think that presidential form of government is better than the parliamentary form of government because it has separation of power, because of the role of the judiciary and the accountability of the government to its people.





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